This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between a cholecystectomy and the subsequent risk of peptic ulcers using a population-based database. Data for this study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 5209 patients who had undergone a cholecystectomy for gallstones and 15,627 sex- and age-matched comparison patients. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers. We found that of the 20,836 sampled patients, 2033 patients (9.76%) received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period: 674 from the study group (12.94% of the patients who underwent a cholecystectomy) and 1359 from the comparison group (8.70% of the comparison patients). The stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.34∼1.64) for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy than comparison patients. Furthermore, the adjusted HRs of gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period were 1.70 and 1.71, respectively, for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy compared to comparison patients. This study demonstrated a relationship between a cholecystectomy and a subsequent diagnosis of peptic ulcers.
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