A large number of host-encoded proteins affect the replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses by acting as susceptibility factors. Many other cellular proteins are known to function as restriction factors of viral infections. Previous studies with tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the inhibitory function of TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domaincontaining cyclophilins, which are members of the large family of host prolyl isomerases, in TBSV replication. In this paper, we tested additional TPR-containing yeast proteins in a cell-free TBSV replication assay and identified the Cns1p cochaperone for heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90 chaperones as a strong inhibitor of TBSV replication. Cns1p interacted with the viral replication proteins and inhibited the assembly of the viral replicase complex and viral RNA synthesis in vitro. Overexpression of Cns1p inhibited TBSV replication in yeast. The use of a temperature-sensitive (TS) mutant of Cns1p in yeast revealed that at a semipermissive temperature, TS Cns1p could not inhibit TBSV replication. Interestingly, Cns1p and the TPR-containing Cpr7p cyclophilin have similar inhibitory functions during TBSV replication, although some of the details of their viral restriction mechanisms are different. Our observations indicate that TPR-containing cellular proteins could act as virus restriction factors.
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