Hypokalemia, Its Contributing Factors and Renal Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Hsiao Han Wang, Chi Chih Hung, Daw Yang Hwang, Mei Chuan Kuo, Yi Wen Chiu, Jer Ming Chang, Jer Chia Tsai, Shang Jyh Hwang, Julian L. Seifter, Hung Chun Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background:In the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population, the impact of serum potassium (sK) on renal outcomes has been controversial. Moreover, the reasons for the potential prognostic value of hypokalemia have not been elucidated.Design, Participants & Measurements:2500 participants with CKD stage 1-4 in the Integrated CKD care program Kaohsiung for delaying Dialysis (ICKD) prospective observational study were analyzed and followed up for 2.7 years. Generalized additive model was fitted to determine the cutpoints and the U-shape association between sK and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). sK was classified into five groups with the cutpoints of 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 mEq/L. Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting the outcomes were used.Results:The mean age was 62.4 years, mean sK level was 4.2±0.5 mEq/L and average eGFR was 40.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Female vs male, diuretic use vs. non-use, hypertension, higher eGFR, bicarbonate, CRP and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with hypokalemia. In patients with lower sK, nephrotic range proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia were more prevalent but the use of RAS (renin-angiotensin system) inhibitors was less frequent. Hypokalemia was significantly associated with ESRD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.03-3.22) in sK <3.5mEq/L and 1.67 (95% CI,1.19-2.35) in sK = 3.5-4 mEq/L, respectively, compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia defined as sK >5 mEq/L conferred 1.6-fold (95% CI,1.09-2.34) increased risk of ESRD compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia was also associated with rapid decline of renal function defined as eGFR slope below 20% of the distribution range.Conclusion:In conclusion, both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with increased risk of ESRD in CKD population. Hypokalemia is related to increased use of diuretics, decreased use of RAS blockade and malnutrition, all of which may impose additive deleterious effects on renal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere67140
JournalPLoS One
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2 2013

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hypokalemia
Hypokalemia
kidney diseases
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
kidneys
Kidney
Chronic Kidney Failure
Renin-Angiotensin System
renin-angiotensin system
Diuretics
diuretics
Angiotensins
Renin
Hypoalbuminemia
Hazards
Hyperkalemia
Bicarbonates
hyperkalemia
Proteinuria
Proportional Hazards Models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Wang, H. H., Hung, C. C., Hwang, D. Y., Kuo, M. C., Chiu, Y. W., Chang, J. M., ... Chen, H. C. (2013). Hypokalemia, Its Contributing Factors and Renal Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. PLoS One, 8(7), [e67140]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067140

Hypokalemia, Its Contributing Factors and Renal Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. / Wang, Hsiao Han; Hung, Chi Chih; Hwang, Daw Yang; Kuo, Mei Chuan; Chiu, Yi Wen; Chang, Jer Ming; Tsai, Jer Chia; Hwang, Shang Jyh; Seifter, Julian L.; Chen, Hung Chun.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 8, No. 7, e67140, 02.07.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, HH, Hung, CC, Hwang, DY, Kuo, MC, Chiu, YW, Chang, JM, Tsai, JC, Hwang, SJ, Seifter, JL & Chen, HC 2013, 'Hypokalemia, Its Contributing Factors and Renal Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease', PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 7, e67140. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067140
Wang, Hsiao Han ; Hung, Chi Chih ; Hwang, Daw Yang ; Kuo, Mei Chuan ; Chiu, Yi Wen ; Chang, Jer Ming ; Tsai, Jer Chia ; Hwang, Shang Jyh ; Seifter, Julian L. ; Chen, Hung Chun. / Hypokalemia, Its Contributing Factors and Renal Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. In: PLoS One. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 7.
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abstract = "Background:In the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population, the impact of serum potassium (sK) on renal outcomes has been controversial. Moreover, the reasons for the potential prognostic value of hypokalemia have not been elucidated.Design, Participants & Measurements:2500 participants with CKD stage 1-4 in the Integrated CKD care program Kaohsiung for delaying Dialysis (ICKD) prospective observational study were analyzed and followed up for 2.7 years. Generalized additive model was fitted to determine the cutpoints and the U-shape association between sK and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). sK was classified into five groups with the cutpoints of 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 mEq/L. Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting the outcomes were used.Results:The mean age was 62.4 years, mean sK level was 4.2±0.5 mEq/L and average eGFR was 40.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Female vs male, diuretic use vs. non-use, hypertension, higher eGFR, bicarbonate, CRP and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with hypokalemia. In patients with lower sK, nephrotic range proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia were more prevalent but the use of RAS (renin-angiotensin system) inhibitors was less frequent. Hypokalemia was significantly associated with ESRD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.82 (95{\%} CI, 1.03-3.22) in sK <3.5mEq/L and 1.67 (95{\%} CI,1.19-2.35) in sK = 3.5-4 mEq/L, respectively, compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia defined as sK >5 mEq/L conferred 1.6-fold (95{\%} CI,1.09-2.34) increased risk of ESRD compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia was also associated with rapid decline of renal function defined as eGFR slope below 20{\%} of the distribution range.Conclusion:In conclusion, both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with increased risk of ESRD in CKD population. Hypokalemia is related to increased use of diuretics, decreased use of RAS blockade and malnutrition, all of which may impose additive deleterious effects on renal outcomes.",
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AU - Hwang, Daw Yang

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AU - Chiu, Yi Wen

AU - Chang, Jer Ming

AU - Tsai, Jer Chia

AU - Hwang, Shang Jyh

AU - Seifter, Julian L.

AU - Chen, Hung Chun

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N2 - Background:In the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population, the impact of serum potassium (sK) on renal outcomes has been controversial. Moreover, the reasons for the potential prognostic value of hypokalemia have not been elucidated.Design, Participants & Measurements:2500 participants with CKD stage 1-4 in the Integrated CKD care program Kaohsiung for delaying Dialysis (ICKD) prospective observational study were analyzed and followed up for 2.7 years. Generalized additive model was fitted to determine the cutpoints and the U-shape association between sK and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). sK was classified into five groups with the cutpoints of 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 mEq/L. Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting the outcomes were used.Results:The mean age was 62.4 years, mean sK level was 4.2±0.5 mEq/L and average eGFR was 40.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Female vs male, diuretic use vs. non-use, hypertension, higher eGFR, bicarbonate, CRP and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with hypokalemia. In patients with lower sK, nephrotic range proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia were more prevalent but the use of RAS (renin-angiotensin system) inhibitors was less frequent. Hypokalemia was significantly associated with ESRD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.03-3.22) in sK <3.5mEq/L and 1.67 (95% CI,1.19-2.35) in sK = 3.5-4 mEq/L, respectively, compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia defined as sK >5 mEq/L conferred 1.6-fold (95% CI,1.09-2.34) increased risk of ESRD compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia was also associated with rapid decline of renal function defined as eGFR slope below 20% of the distribution range.Conclusion:In conclusion, both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with increased risk of ESRD in CKD population. Hypokalemia is related to increased use of diuretics, decreased use of RAS blockade and malnutrition, all of which may impose additive deleterious effects on renal outcomes.

AB - Background:In the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population, the impact of serum potassium (sK) on renal outcomes has been controversial. Moreover, the reasons for the potential prognostic value of hypokalemia have not been elucidated.Design, Participants & Measurements:2500 participants with CKD stage 1-4 in the Integrated CKD care program Kaohsiung for delaying Dialysis (ICKD) prospective observational study were analyzed and followed up for 2.7 years. Generalized additive model was fitted to determine the cutpoints and the U-shape association between sK and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). sK was classified into five groups with the cutpoints of 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 mEq/L. Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting the outcomes were used.Results:The mean age was 62.4 years, mean sK level was 4.2±0.5 mEq/L and average eGFR was 40.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Female vs male, diuretic use vs. non-use, hypertension, higher eGFR, bicarbonate, CRP and hemoglobin levels significantly correlated with hypokalemia. In patients with lower sK, nephrotic range proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia were more prevalent but the use of RAS (renin-angiotensin system) inhibitors was less frequent. Hypokalemia was significantly associated with ESRD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.03-3.22) in sK <3.5mEq/L and 1.67 (95% CI,1.19-2.35) in sK = 3.5-4 mEq/L, respectively, compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia defined as sK >5 mEq/L conferred 1.6-fold (95% CI,1.09-2.34) increased risk of ESRD compared with sK = 4.5-5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia was also associated with rapid decline of renal function defined as eGFR slope below 20% of the distribution range.Conclusion:In conclusion, both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with increased risk of ESRD in CKD population. Hypokalemia is related to increased use of diuretics, decreased use of RAS blockade and malnutrition, all of which may impose additive deleterious effects on renal outcomes.

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