In our previous publication it was shown that a Gemcitabine-resistant KBGem clone derived from step-wise exposure to Gemcitabine resulted in overexpression of the human Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 subunit (hRRM2) mRNA and protein (Goan et al., 1999). In this study we confirm these results and show that the hRRM2 gene amplification arises in a homogeneous staining region (hsr) derived from chromosome translocation. The hydroxyurea-resistant clone (KBHURs) was studied as a comparison. PCR analysis of the hRRM2 gene promoter confirmed the amplification. Northern and Western blots were further employed to confirm the gene amplification and hRRM2 mRNA and protein expression were compatible with the level of drug resistance. Cells synchronized by serum starvation and then returned to serum-containing growth conditions showed a rapid induction of high levels of transcription of the hRRM2 gene. To clarify whether expression of hRRM2 mRNA was regulated at a transcriptional level, several transcription factors, including AP-1, Sp1, AP-2, CREB, NF-ΚB, and OCT1, were examined by gel-shift assay. Interestingly, the KBGem clone was regulated by different transcription factors than the KBHURs clone. Compared to the wild-type KB cells (KBwt), the KBGem clone exhibited a different binding pattern for Sp1 and NF-ΚB. The KBHURs clone, however, demonstrated a unique binding pattern with AP-1 and CREB, different from the KBwt control as well as the KBGem clone. Therefore, we conclude that the drug-resistant phenotype is associated with human RRM2 gene amplification from a homogeneous staining chromosome region and altered transcription regulation. Each clone demonstrated a unique pattern of transcription factor binding that may play a vital role in the mechanism of drug resistance.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology