Kenya is home to one of the world's worst HIV and AIDS epidemics. Approximately 1.5 million people are living with HIV, and an estimated 1 million children have been orphaned by the virus. The prevalence peaked in 2000 and, according to the latest figures (2010), has dramatically dropped to around 6.3%. Although many people in Kenya are still not being reached with HIV prevention and treatment services, access to treatment is increasing. More than half of adults who need treatment are receiving it, with around 100,000 additional adults on treatment in 2010 than in 2009. In comparison, the number of infected children receiving antiretroviral treatment is extremely low. Around 170,000 children are eligible to receive treatment, yet only around 1 in 5 has access to it. The knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available worldwide, but AIDS control in Kenya is apt to be for naught unless strong efforts are implemented toward the reduction of poverty, ignorance, and in the control of other common sexually transmitted diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the impact of HIV and AIDS in Kenya, and then discuss the various strategies that have been used to address the scourge.