Hispolon inhibition of inflammatory apoptosis through reduction of iNOS/NO production via HO-1 induction in macrophages

Liang Yo Yang, Shing Chuan Shen, Kur Ta Cheng, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju, Chih Chiang Chien, Yen Chou Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis), a well-known medical fungus, has long been used as a traditional medicine in Oriental countries to treat various diseases, and hispolon (HIS) is one of its bioactive components. HIS is known to possess potent antineoplastic and antiviral properties; however, its effect on inflammatory apoptosis is still undefined.

Materials and methods RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with HIS for 30 min followed by LPS, LTA, or PGN stimulation for 12 h. The expression of indicated proteins AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities was examined by Western blotting using specific antibodies. Levels of NO and ROS were examined by Griess reaction, and DCHF-DA staining via flow cytometric analysis, respectively. AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities were detected by luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of HO-1 protein expression was performed by transfection of macrophages with HO-1 siRNA. Pharmacological inhibitors including ROS scavenger NAC, JNK inhibitor SP600125, NF-κB inhibitor BAY117082 were applied for mechanism study.

Results HIS showed concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS, LTA, and PGN-induced iNOS protein expressions and NO production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Accordingly, HIS protected RAW264.7 cells from LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-induced apoptosis. Increased HO-1 by HIS was detected at both protein and mRNA levels along with an increase in intracellular peroxide, and this was inhibited by the translational inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D (Act D), and the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A mechanistic study indicated that inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation, and activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation were involved in the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS in macrophages. A structure-activity relationship analysis showed that HIS expressed the most potent effect of inhibiting iNOS and apoptosis elicited by LPS, LTA, and PGN with a significant increase in HO-1 protein in macrophages.

Conclusions Evidence supporting HIS prevention of inflammatory apoptosis via blocking NO production and inducing HO-1 protein expression in macrophages is provided, and the hydroxyl at position C3 is a critical substitution for the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-72
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume156
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 28 2014

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Macrophages
Transcription Factor AP-1
Proteins
Acetylcysteine
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
East Asian Traditional Medicine
hispolon
Pyroptosis
Apoptosis
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Peroxides
Dactinomycin
Cycloheximide
Structure-Activity Relationship
Luciferases
Hydroxyl Radical
Antineoplastic Agents
Small Interfering RNA
Antiviral Agents
Transfection

Keywords

  • Keywords Hispolon Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Apoptosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Hispolon inhibition of inflammatory apoptosis through reduction of iNOS/NO production via HO-1 induction in macrophages. / Yang, Liang Yo; Shen, Shing Chuan; Cheng, Kur Ta; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V.; Chien, Chih Chiang; Chen, Yen Chou.

In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 156, 28.10.2014, p. 61-72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Hispolon inhibition of inflammatory apoptosis through reduction of iNOS/NO production via HO-1 induction in macrophages",
abstract = "Ethnopharmacological relevance Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis), a well-known medical fungus, has long been used as a traditional medicine in Oriental countries to treat various diseases, and hispolon (HIS) is one of its bioactive components. HIS is known to possess potent antineoplastic and antiviral properties; however, its effect on inflammatory apoptosis is still undefined.Materials and methods RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with HIS for 30 min followed by LPS, LTA, or PGN stimulation for 12 h. The expression of indicated proteins AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities was examined by Western blotting using specific antibodies. Levels of NO and ROS were examined by Griess reaction, and DCHF-DA staining via flow cytometric analysis, respectively. AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities were detected by luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of HO-1 protein expression was performed by transfection of macrophages with HO-1 siRNA. Pharmacological inhibitors including ROS scavenger NAC, JNK inhibitor SP600125, NF-κB inhibitor BAY117082 were applied for mechanism study.Results HIS showed concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS, LTA, and PGN-induced iNOS protein expressions and NO production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Accordingly, HIS protected RAW264.7 cells from LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-induced apoptosis. Increased HO-1 by HIS was detected at both protein and mRNA levels along with an increase in intracellular peroxide, and this was inhibited by the translational inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D (Act D), and the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A mechanistic study indicated that inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation, and activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation were involved in the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS in macrophages. A structure-activity relationship analysis showed that HIS expressed the most potent effect of inhibiting iNOS and apoptosis elicited by LPS, LTA, and PGN with a significant increase in HO-1 protein in macrophages.Conclusions Evidence supporting HIS prevention of inflammatory apoptosis via blocking NO production and inducing HO-1 protein expression in macrophages is provided, and the hydroxyl at position C3 is a critical substitution for the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS.",
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author = "Yang, {Liang Yo} and Shen, {Shing Chuan} and Cheng, {Kur Ta} and Subbaraju, {Gottumukkala V.} and Chien, {Chih Chiang} and Chen, {Yen Chou}",
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T1 - Hispolon inhibition of inflammatory apoptosis through reduction of iNOS/NO production via HO-1 induction in macrophages

AU - Yang, Liang Yo

AU - Shen, Shing Chuan

AU - Cheng, Kur Ta

AU - Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V.

AU - Chien, Chih Chiang

AU - Chen, Yen Chou

PY - 2014/10/28

Y1 - 2014/10/28

N2 - Ethnopharmacological relevance Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis), a well-known medical fungus, has long been used as a traditional medicine in Oriental countries to treat various diseases, and hispolon (HIS) is one of its bioactive components. HIS is known to possess potent antineoplastic and antiviral properties; however, its effect on inflammatory apoptosis is still undefined.Materials and methods RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with HIS for 30 min followed by LPS, LTA, or PGN stimulation for 12 h. The expression of indicated proteins AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities was examined by Western blotting using specific antibodies. Levels of NO and ROS were examined by Griess reaction, and DCHF-DA staining via flow cytometric analysis, respectively. AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities were detected by luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of HO-1 protein expression was performed by transfection of macrophages with HO-1 siRNA. Pharmacological inhibitors including ROS scavenger NAC, JNK inhibitor SP600125, NF-κB inhibitor BAY117082 were applied for mechanism study.Results HIS showed concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS, LTA, and PGN-induced iNOS protein expressions and NO production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Accordingly, HIS protected RAW264.7 cells from LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-induced apoptosis. Increased HO-1 by HIS was detected at both protein and mRNA levels along with an increase in intracellular peroxide, and this was inhibited by the translational inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D (Act D), and the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A mechanistic study indicated that inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation, and activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation were involved in the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS in macrophages. A structure-activity relationship analysis showed that HIS expressed the most potent effect of inhibiting iNOS and apoptosis elicited by LPS, LTA, and PGN with a significant increase in HO-1 protein in macrophages.Conclusions Evidence supporting HIS prevention of inflammatory apoptosis via blocking NO production and inducing HO-1 protein expression in macrophages is provided, and the hydroxyl at position C3 is a critical substitution for the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS.

AB - Ethnopharmacological relevance Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis), a well-known medical fungus, has long been used as a traditional medicine in Oriental countries to treat various diseases, and hispolon (HIS) is one of its bioactive components. HIS is known to possess potent antineoplastic and antiviral properties; however, its effect on inflammatory apoptosis is still undefined.Materials and methods RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with HIS for 30 min followed by LPS, LTA, or PGN stimulation for 12 h. The expression of indicated proteins AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities was examined by Western blotting using specific antibodies. Levels of NO and ROS were examined by Griess reaction, and DCHF-DA staining via flow cytometric analysis, respectively. AP-1 and NF-κB transcriptional activities were detected by luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of HO-1 protein expression was performed by transfection of macrophages with HO-1 siRNA. Pharmacological inhibitors including ROS scavenger NAC, JNK inhibitor SP600125, NF-κB inhibitor BAY117082 were applied for mechanism study.Results HIS showed concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS, LTA, and PGN-induced iNOS protein expressions and NO production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Accordingly, HIS protected RAW264.7 cells from LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-induced apoptosis. Increased HO-1 by HIS was detected at both protein and mRNA levels along with an increase in intracellular peroxide, and this was inhibited by the translational inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D (Act D), and the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A mechanistic study indicated that inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation, and activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation were involved in the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS in macrophages. A structure-activity relationship analysis showed that HIS expressed the most potent effect of inhibiting iNOS and apoptosis elicited by LPS, LTA, and PGN with a significant increase in HO-1 protein in macrophages.Conclusions Evidence supporting HIS prevention of inflammatory apoptosis via blocking NO production and inducing HO-1 protein expression in macrophages is provided, and the hydroxyl at position C3 is a critical substitution for the anti-inflammatory actions of HIS.

KW - Keywords Hispolon Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Apoptosis

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