Hip fracture is a significant health problem and is associated with increased mortality. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more at risk of hip fracture than the general population, but the hip fracture risk is not evident among non-dialysis CKD stage 5 patients. This study aims to assess the risk of hip fracture in patients with non-dialysis CKD stage 5 comparing to those with CKD stages 1–4. Patients with non-dialysis CKD stage 5 and CKD stages 1–4 were retrieved from Taiwan longitudinal health insurance database 2011–2014. All patients were followed to the end of 2018 for the development of hip fractures. We analyze the risk of hip fracture of propensity score-matched patients with CKD stage 5 compared to patients with CKD stages 1–4 using stepwise Cox regression and competing risks regression. We analyzed 5649 propensity score-matched non-dialysis CKD 1–4 patients and non-dialysis CKD 5 patients between 2011 and 2014. All patients were followed to the end of 2018, 229 (4.1%) of CKD 1–4 patients in 21,899 patient-year, and 290 (5.1%) of CKD 5 patients had hip fractures in 18,137 patient-year. CKD 5 patients had a higher risk of hip fracture than patients with CKD stages 1–4. The adjusted HR was 1.53 (95% CI 1.08–1.54) in the Cox regression with adjustments for age, gender, comorbidity, and history of fracture. In the competing risks regression, the subdistribution hazard ratio was 1.29 (95% CI 1.08–1.54). Female gender, age, history of fractures, and Charlson–Deyo comorbidity index were independently associated with increased hip fracture risks. Non-dialysis CKD 5 patients had a higher risk of hip fracture than patients with CKD stages 1–4. This association is independent of patients’ age, female gender, history of fractures, and comorbidities.
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