Hinokitiol Negatively Regulates Immune Responses through Cell Cycle Arrest in Concanavalin A-Activated Lymphocytes

Chi Li Chung, Kam Wing Leung, Wan-Jung Lu, Ting Lin Yen, Chia Fu He, Joen Rong Sheu, Kuan Hung Lin, Li Ming Lien

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Abstract

Autoimmune diseases are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that arise from inappropriate inflammatory responses. Hinokitiol, isolated from the wood of Chamaecyparis taiwanensis, engages in multiple biological activities. Although hinokitiol has been reported to inhibit inflammation, its immunological regulation in lymphocytes remains incomplete. Thus, we determined the effects of hinokitiol on concanavalin A- (ConA-) stimulated T lymphocytes from the spleens of mice. In the present study, the MTT assay revealed that hinokitiol (1-5 M) alone did not affect cell viability of lymphocytes, but at the concentration of 5 M it could reduce ConA-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed that hinokitiol arrested cell cycle of T lymphocytes at the G0/G1 phase. Hinokitiol also reduced interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secretion from ConA-activated T lymphocytes, as detected by an ELISA assay. In addition, hinokitiol also downregulated cyclin D3, E2F1, and Cdk4 expression and upregulated p21 expression. These results revealed that hinokitiol may regulate immune responses. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrated that hinokitiol upregulates p21 expression and attenuates IFN-γ secretion in ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes, thereby arresting cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. In addition, our findings also indicated that hinokitiol may provide benefits to treating patients with autoimmune diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number595824
JournalEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

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