Helmet non-use by users of bikeshare programs, electric bicycles, racing bicycles, and personal bicycles: An observational study in Taipei, Taiwan

Chia Fen Chi, Ping Ling Chen, Wafaa Saleh, Shin Han Tsai, Chih Wei Pai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


The bikeshare program in Taipei City and New Taipei City, called U-bike, was launched in August 2012 and has more than 7500 bicycles operating out of 769 stations. Research has suggested that bicycle helmet use is a means of reducing morbidity and mortality among bike users. Helmets, however, are not available for rent when a U-bike is rented. The current research conducted an observational study to examine the prevalence of helmet non-use by users of the bikeshare program, electric bicycles, racing bicycles, and personal bicycles in Taipei City and New Taipei City. Trained observers using compact video cameras collected helmet non-use data during various times of the day and on different days of the week. Observers collected data on cyclist attributes, bicycle types, and helmet use at several selected locations within Taipei City and New Taipei City. U-bike users were found to be the least likely to wear helmets. Other noteworthy findings include that violations such as phone use, red-light violations, and travelling at ≥25 km/h were associated with riding without a helmet. Male users of racing bikes tended not to wear helmets, while female users of other bicycle types were less likely to use a helmet. Carrying passengers by users of electric bikes and personal bikes was a determinant of helmet non-use. This paper concludes with a discussion and recommendations for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Publication statusAccepted/In press - May 8 2018



  • Bikeshare program
  • electric bicycle
  • helmet use
  • racing bike

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation

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