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Abstract

Among 13 different cell lines, gossypol (GOS) showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against human colorectal carcinoma cells including HT29, COLO205, COLO320HSR and COLO320DM cells according to an MTT assay. The cytotoxic effect of GOS was mediated by its induction of apoptosis as characterized by the occurrence of DNA ladders, apoptotic bodies and chromosome condensation in both COLO205 and HT29 cells. Activation of caspase 3, 6, 8 and 9, but not caspase 1, accompanied by the appearance of cleaved fragments of PARP (85 kDa), and caspase 3 (p17/p15), was identified in GOS-treated cells. Decreases in Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad proteins were found in GOS-treated cells. GOS induction of ROS production was detected by in vitro plasmid digestion, and an increase in the intracellular peroxide level was observed in GOS-treated COLO205 cells by the DCHF-DA assay. Antioxidants including N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase (CAT), tempol (TEM) and melatonin (MEL), but not allopurinol (ALL), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or diphenylene iodonium (DPI), significantly inhibited GOS-induced Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through blocking the occurrence of apoptosis. GOS induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by a loss of the mitochondria membrane potential via DiOC6 staining, and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was observed. Removing mitochondria by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of GOS in COLO205 cells. Furthermore, an intraperitoneal injection of GOS or gossypol acetic acid (GAA) significantly reduced the growth of colorectal carcinoma induced by a subcutaneous injection of COLO205 cells in nude mice. Results of the present study provide the first evidences demonstrating the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of GOS via an ROS-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1670-1679
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Volume121
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 15 2007

Fingerprint

Gossypol
Colorectal Neoplasms
Reactive Oxygen Species
Mitochondria
Growth
Neoplasms
HT29 Cells
Apoptosis
Caspase 3
bcl-Associated Death Protein
Caspase 6
Apoptosis Inducing Factor
Caspase 1
Allopurinol
Ethidium
Caspase 9
Peroxides
Acetylcysteine
Melatonin
Subcutaneous Injections

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis-inducing factor
  • Cytochrome c
  • Gossypol
  • Mitochondria
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Gossypol reduction of tumor growth through ROS-dependent mitochondria pathway in human colorectal carcinoma cells. / Ko, Ching Huai; Shen, Shing Chuan; Yang, Liang Yo; Lin, Cheng Wei; Chen, Yen Chou.

In: International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 121, No. 8, 15.10.2007, p. 1670-1679.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Among 13 different cell lines, gossypol (GOS) showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against human colorectal carcinoma cells including HT29, COLO205, COLO320HSR and COLO320DM cells according to an MTT assay. The cytotoxic effect of GOS was mediated by its induction of apoptosis as characterized by the occurrence of DNA ladders, apoptotic bodies and chromosome condensation in both COLO205 and HT29 cells. Activation of caspase 3, 6, 8 and 9, but not caspase 1, accompanied by the appearance of cleaved fragments of PARP (85 kDa), and caspase 3 (p17/p15), was identified in GOS-treated cells. Decreases in Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad proteins were found in GOS-treated cells. GOS induction of ROS production was detected by in vitro plasmid digestion, and an increase in the intracellular peroxide level was observed in GOS-treated COLO205 cells by the DCHF-DA assay. Antioxidants including N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase (CAT), tempol (TEM) and melatonin (MEL), but not allopurinol (ALL), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or diphenylene iodonium (DPI), significantly inhibited GOS-induced Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through blocking the occurrence of apoptosis. GOS induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by a loss of the mitochondria membrane potential via DiOC6 staining, and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was observed. Removing mitochondria by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of GOS in COLO205 cells. Furthermore, an intraperitoneal injection of GOS or gossypol acetic acid (GAA) significantly reduced the growth of colorectal carcinoma induced by a subcutaneous injection of COLO205 cells in nude mice. Results of the present study provide the first evidences demonstrating the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of GOS via an ROS-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma.",
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AU - Ko, Ching Huai

AU - Shen, Shing Chuan

AU - Yang, Liang Yo

AU - Lin, Cheng Wei

AU - Chen, Yen Chou

PY - 2007/10/15

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N2 - Among 13 different cell lines, gossypol (GOS) showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against human colorectal carcinoma cells including HT29, COLO205, COLO320HSR and COLO320DM cells according to an MTT assay. The cytotoxic effect of GOS was mediated by its induction of apoptosis as characterized by the occurrence of DNA ladders, apoptotic bodies and chromosome condensation in both COLO205 and HT29 cells. Activation of caspase 3, 6, 8 and 9, but not caspase 1, accompanied by the appearance of cleaved fragments of PARP (85 kDa), and caspase 3 (p17/p15), was identified in GOS-treated cells. Decreases in Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad proteins were found in GOS-treated cells. GOS induction of ROS production was detected by in vitro plasmid digestion, and an increase in the intracellular peroxide level was observed in GOS-treated COLO205 cells by the DCHF-DA assay. Antioxidants including N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase (CAT), tempol (TEM) and melatonin (MEL), but not allopurinol (ALL), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or diphenylene iodonium (DPI), significantly inhibited GOS-induced Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through blocking the occurrence of apoptosis. GOS induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by a loss of the mitochondria membrane potential via DiOC6 staining, and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was observed. Removing mitochondria by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of GOS in COLO205 cells. Furthermore, an intraperitoneal injection of GOS or gossypol acetic acid (GAA) significantly reduced the growth of colorectal carcinoma induced by a subcutaneous injection of COLO205 cells in nude mice. Results of the present study provide the first evidences demonstrating the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of GOS via an ROS-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma.

AB - Among 13 different cell lines, gossypol (GOS) showed the most potent cytotoxic effect against human colorectal carcinoma cells including HT29, COLO205, COLO320HSR and COLO320DM cells according to an MTT assay. The cytotoxic effect of GOS was mediated by its induction of apoptosis as characterized by the occurrence of DNA ladders, apoptotic bodies and chromosome condensation in both COLO205 and HT29 cells. Activation of caspase 3, 6, 8 and 9, but not caspase 1, accompanied by the appearance of cleaved fragments of PARP (85 kDa), and caspase 3 (p17/p15), was identified in GOS-treated cells. Decreases in Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad proteins were found in GOS-treated cells. GOS induction of ROS production was detected by in vitro plasmid digestion, and an increase in the intracellular peroxide level was observed in GOS-treated COLO205 cells by the DCHF-DA assay. Antioxidants including N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase (CAT), tempol (TEM) and melatonin (MEL), but not allopurinol (ALL), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or diphenylene iodonium (DPI), significantly inhibited GOS-induced Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through blocking the occurrence of apoptosis. GOS induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by a loss of the mitochondria membrane potential via DiOC6 staining, and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was observed. Removing mitochondria by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of GOS in COLO205 cells. Furthermore, an intraperitoneal injection of GOS or gossypol acetic acid (GAA) significantly reduced the growth of colorectal carcinoma induced by a subcutaneous injection of COLO205 cells in nude mice. Results of the present study provide the first evidences demonstrating the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of GOS via an ROS-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma.

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