Glycogen synthase kinase-3 negatively regulates anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 for lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS/NO biosynthesis and RANTES production in microglial cells

Wei-Ching Huang, Yee-Shin Lin, Chi-Yun Wang, Cheng-Chieh Tsai, Hsiang-Chi Tseng, Chia-Ling Chen, Pei-Jung Lu, Po-See Chen, Li Qian, Jau-Shyong Hong, Chiou Feng Lin

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Abstract

The inflammatory effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) have been identified; however, the potential mechanism is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of GSK-3-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibition on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Treatment with GSK-3 inhibitor significantly blocked LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in BV2 murine microglial cells and primary rat microglia-enriched cultures. Using an antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that GSK-3-inhibitor treatment blocked LPS-induced upregulation of regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and increased IL-10 expression. The time kinetics and dose-response relations were confirmed. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed changes on the messenger RNA level as well. Inhibiting GSK-3 using short-interference RNA, and transfecting cells with dominant-negative GSK-3β, blocked LPS-elicited NO and RANTES expression but increased IL-10 expression. In contrast, GSK-3β overexpression upregulated NO and RANTES but downregulated IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells. Treating cells with anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies to prevent GSK-3 from downregulating NO and RANTES showed that the anti-inflammatory effects are, at least in part, IL-10-dependent. The involvement of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB that positively regulated IL-10 was demonstrated. Furthermore, inhibiting GSK-3 increased the nuclear translocation of transcription factors, that all important for IL-10 expression, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beat (C/EBPβ), C/EBPδ, cAMP response binding element protein and NF-κB. Taken together, these findings reveal that LPS induces iNOS/NO biosynthesis and RANTES production through a mechanism involving GSK-3-mediated IL-10 downregulation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalImmunology
Volume128
Issue number1 PART 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2009

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Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Interleukin-10
Lipopolysaccharides
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
T-Lymphocytes
Nitric Oxide
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
Down-Regulation
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Microglia
Response Elements
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
RNA Interference
Neutralizing Antibodies
Reverse Transcription
Transcription Factors
Up-Regulation
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Keywords

  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3
  • Interleukin-10
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Microglia
  • Nitric oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 negatively regulates anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 for lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS/NO biosynthesis and RANTES production in microglial cells. / Huang, Wei-Ching; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wang, Chi-Yun; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Po-See; Qian, Li; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lin, Chiou Feng.

In: Immunology, Vol. 128, No. 1 PART 2, 09.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huang, Wei-Ching ; Lin, Yee-Shin ; Wang, Chi-Yun ; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh ; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi ; Chen, Chia-Ling ; Lu, Pei-Jung ; Chen, Po-See ; Qian, Li ; Hong, Jau-Shyong ; Lin, Chiou Feng. / Glycogen synthase kinase-3 negatively regulates anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 for lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS/NO biosynthesis and RANTES production in microglial cells. In: Immunology. 2009 ; Vol. 128, No. 1 PART 2.
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abstract = "The inflammatory effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) have been identified; however, the potential mechanism is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of GSK-3-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibition on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Treatment with GSK-3 inhibitor significantly blocked LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in BV2 murine microglial cells and primary rat microglia-enriched cultures. Using an antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that GSK-3-inhibitor treatment blocked LPS-induced upregulation of regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and increased IL-10 expression. The time kinetics and dose-response relations were confirmed. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed changes on the messenger RNA level as well. Inhibiting GSK-3 using short-interference RNA, and transfecting cells with dominant-negative GSK-3β, blocked LPS-elicited NO and RANTES expression but increased IL-10 expression. In contrast, GSK-3β overexpression upregulated NO and RANTES but downregulated IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells. Treating cells with anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies to prevent GSK-3 from downregulating NO and RANTES showed that the anti-inflammatory effects are, at least in part, IL-10-dependent. The involvement of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB that positively regulated IL-10 was demonstrated. Furthermore, inhibiting GSK-3 increased the nuclear translocation of transcription factors, that all important for IL-10 expression, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beat (C/EBPβ), C/EBPδ, cAMP response binding element protein and NF-κB. Taken together, these findings reveal that LPS induces iNOS/NO biosynthesis and RANTES production through a mechanism involving GSK-3-mediated IL-10 downregulation.",
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AU - Wang, Chi-Yun

AU - Tsai, Cheng-Chieh

AU - Tseng, Hsiang-Chi

AU - Chen, Chia-Ling

AU - Lu, Pei-Jung

AU - Chen, Po-See

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AB - The inflammatory effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) have been identified; however, the potential mechanism is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of GSK-3-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibition on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Treatment with GSK-3 inhibitor significantly blocked LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in BV2 murine microglial cells and primary rat microglia-enriched cultures. Using an antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that GSK-3-inhibitor treatment blocked LPS-induced upregulation of regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and increased IL-10 expression. The time kinetics and dose-response relations were confirmed. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed changes on the messenger RNA level as well. Inhibiting GSK-3 using short-interference RNA, and transfecting cells with dominant-negative GSK-3β, blocked LPS-elicited NO and RANTES expression but increased IL-10 expression. In contrast, GSK-3β overexpression upregulated NO and RANTES but downregulated IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells. Treating cells with anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies to prevent GSK-3 from downregulating NO and RANTES showed that the anti-inflammatory effects are, at least in part, IL-10-dependent. The involvement of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB that positively regulated IL-10 was demonstrated. Furthermore, inhibiting GSK-3 increased the nuclear translocation of transcription factors, that all important for IL-10 expression, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beat (C/EBPβ), C/EBPδ, cAMP response binding element protein and NF-κB. Taken together, these findings reveal that LPS induces iNOS/NO biosynthesis and RANTES production through a mechanism involving GSK-3-mediated IL-10 downregulation.

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