Abstract

Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a key modulator of prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Prostate cancer is a worldwide health problem, and therapeutic resistance is a critical obstacle for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Shikonin inhibits prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of GRP78 in the cytotoxic effect of shikonin in prostate cancer cells remains unclear. GRP78 expression was abolished using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the anticancer effects of shikonin were assessed using MTT assays, the XCELLigence biosensor, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Annexin V-PI apoptotic assays. PC-3 cells expressed more GRP78 than DU-145 cells, and the MTT assays revealed that DU-145 cells were more sensitive to shikonin than PC-3 cells. GRP78 knockdown (GRP78KD) PC-3 cells were more sensitive to shikonin treatment than scrambled siRNA control cells. Based on cell cycle analysis and AnnexinV-PI apoptotic assays, apoptosis dramatically increased in GRP78KD cells compared with the control PC-3 in response to shikonin. Finally, in response to shikonin treatment, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 levels increased in the scrambled control cells treated with shikonin, whereas Bcl-2 decreased and Mcl-1 slightly increased in the GRP78KD PC-3 cells. The levels of Bax and Bad did not change in the scrambled control or GRP78KD cells after shikonin treatment. These results are consistent with the increased sensitivity to shikonin after knockdown of GRP78. GRP78 expression may determine the therapeutic efficacy of shikonin against prostate cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5063-5070
Number of pages8
JournalTumor Biology
Volume36
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 29 2015

Fingerprint

Prostatic Neoplasms
Hormones
Small Interfering RNA
Therapeutics
shikonin
glucose-regulated proteins
Cell Cycle
Annexin A5
Biosensing Techniques
Apoptosis
Neoplasm Metastasis

Keywords

  • Anti-cancer
  • GRP78
  • Prostate cancer
  • Shikonin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Glucose-regulated protein 78 mediates the anticancer efficacy of shikonin in hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells",
abstract = "Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a key modulator of prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Prostate cancer is a worldwide health problem, and therapeutic resistance is a critical obstacle for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Shikonin inhibits prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of GRP78 in the cytotoxic effect of shikonin in prostate cancer cells remains unclear. GRP78 expression was abolished using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the anticancer effects of shikonin were assessed using MTT assays, the XCELLigence biosensor, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Annexin V-PI apoptotic assays. PC-3 cells expressed more GRP78 than DU-145 cells, and the MTT assays revealed that DU-145 cells were more sensitive to shikonin than PC-3 cells. GRP78 knockdown (GRP78KD) PC-3 cells were more sensitive to shikonin treatment than scrambled siRNA control cells. Based on cell cycle analysis and AnnexinV-PI apoptotic assays, apoptosis dramatically increased in GRP78KD cells compared with the control PC-3 in response to shikonin. Finally, in response to shikonin treatment, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 levels increased in the scrambled control cells treated with shikonin, whereas Bcl-2 decreased and Mcl-1 slightly increased in the GRP78KD PC-3 cells. The levels of Bax and Bad did not change in the scrambled control or GRP78KD cells after shikonin treatment. These results are consistent with the increased sensitivity to shikonin after knockdown of GRP78. GRP78 expression may determine the therapeutic efficacy of shikonin against prostate cancer cells.",
keywords = "Anti-cancer, GRP78, Prostate cancer, Shikonin",
author = "Kuo, {Li Jen} and Huang, {Chien Yu} and Cheng, {Wan Li} and Hung, {Chin Sheng} and Wu, {Chun Te} and Lin, {Feng Yen} and Chang, {Yu Jia} and Huang, {Ming Te}",
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T1 - Glucose-regulated protein 78 mediates the anticancer efficacy of shikonin in hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells

AU - Kuo, Li Jen

AU - Huang, Chien Yu

AU - Cheng, Wan Li

AU - Hung, Chin Sheng

AU - Wu, Chun Te

AU - Lin, Feng Yen

AU - Chang, Yu Jia

AU - Huang, Ming Te

PY - 2015/7/29

Y1 - 2015/7/29

N2 - Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a key modulator of prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Prostate cancer is a worldwide health problem, and therapeutic resistance is a critical obstacle for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Shikonin inhibits prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of GRP78 in the cytotoxic effect of shikonin in prostate cancer cells remains unclear. GRP78 expression was abolished using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the anticancer effects of shikonin were assessed using MTT assays, the XCELLigence biosensor, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Annexin V-PI apoptotic assays. PC-3 cells expressed more GRP78 than DU-145 cells, and the MTT assays revealed that DU-145 cells were more sensitive to shikonin than PC-3 cells. GRP78 knockdown (GRP78KD) PC-3 cells were more sensitive to shikonin treatment than scrambled siRNA control cells. Based on cell cycle analysis and AnnexinV-PI apoptotic assays, apoptosis dramatically increased in GRP78KD cells compared with the control PC-3 in response to shikonin. Finally, in response to shikonin treatment, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 levels increased in the scrambled control cells treated with shikonin, whereas Bcl-2 decreased and Mcl-1 slightly increased in the GRP78KD PC-3 cells. The levels of Bax and Bad did not change in the scrambled control or GRP78KD cells after shikonin treatment. These results are consistent with the increased sensitivity to shikonin after knockdown of GRP78. GRP78 expression may determine the therapeutic efficacy of shikonin against prostate cancer cells.

AB - Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a key modulator of prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Prostate cancer is a worldwide health problem, and therapeutic resistance is a critical obstacle for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Shikonin inhibits prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of GRP78 in the cytotoxic effect of shikonin in prostate cancer cells remains unclear. GRP78 expression was abolished using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the anticancer effects of shikonin were assessed using MTT assays, the XCELLigence biosensor, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Annexin V-PI apoptotic assays. PC-3 cells expressed more GRP78 than DU-145 cells, and the MTT assays revealed that DU-145 cells were more sensitive to shikonin than PC-3 cells. GRP78 knockdown (GRP78KD) PC-3 cells were more sensitive to shikonin treatment than scrambled siRNA control cells. Based on cell cycle analysis and AnnexinV-PI apoptotic assays, apoptosis dramatically increased in GRP78KD cells compared with the control PC-3 in response to shikonin. Finally, in response to shikonin treatment, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 levels increased in the scrambled control cells treated with shikonin, whereas Bcl-2 decreased and Mcl-1 slightly increased in the GRP78KD PC-3 cells. The levels of Bax and Bad did not change in the scrambled control or GRP78KD cells after shikonin treatment. These results are consistent with the increased sensitivity to shikonin after knockdown of GRP78. GRP78 expression may determine the therapeutic efficacy of shikonin against prostate cancer cells.

KW - Anti-cancer

KW - GRP78

KW - Prostate cancer

KW - Shikonin

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