Background: Although several studies have suggested single gene defects or variations in the genes associated with host immune response could confer differences in susceptibility to urinary pathogen invasion, no studies have examined the genetic polymorphisms in various toll-like receptors (TLRs) that activate innate immune responses in pediatric renal parenchymal infections of different clinical severities, namely acute pyelonephritis and the clinically more severe disease, acute lobar nephronia. Methodology: Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute pyelonephritis (APN) and acute lobar nephronia (ALN) without underlying diseases or structural anomalies, except for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), were enrolled. Genotyping of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5, and TLR-6 was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-based mini-sequencing analysis. Principal Findings: A total of 16 SNPs were selected for genotyping. Analysis of 96 normal and 48 patients' samples revealed that only four SNPs had heterozygosity rates >0.01. These SNPs were selected for further investigation. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was satisfied for the observed genotype frequencies. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequency of TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C) between controls and ALN or (APN+ALN) combined group were identified using the recessive model with the correction for multiple-SNP testing. Further genotype pattern frequency analysis in TLR-2 SNPs (rs3804099 and rs3804100) showed significantly reduced occurrence of the rare allele homozygote (CC+CC) in the no-VUR subgroup of APN and ALN cases. Conclusions: As the inflammatory responses in ALN patients are more severe than those in APN patients (higher CRP levels, longer duration of fever after antibiotic treatment), these findings suggest that the genetic variant in TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C) may protect the host from severe urinary tract infections as ALN.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)