Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism resulting in elevated serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which lead to increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. The recognized cause is mutations of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 genes. This study reviewed the literature in Han Chinese to investigate the frequency and spectrum of mutations that are recognized by molecular genetics as causes of FH, the clinical characteristics, and mutation detection rates of FH. MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Wanfang, CNKI, and FH websites, were reviewed through December 2014. Sixty-six studies met inclusion criteria. Totally, 143 different LDLR mutations were identified, including 134 point mutations and 9 large rearrangements; functional characteristics of 46 point mutations were studied. The 5 most frequent mutations included APOB 10579C>T, LDLR 986G>A, 1747C>T, 1879G>A, and 268G>A. Most of these mutations were reported in Southeast China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. DNA detection rates of heterozygous FH were 6.5% to 77.5%, depending on the inclusion criteria and chosen screening method. With the economic growth and Western-like diet patterns being adopted over the past decade in municipalities in mainland China and Taiwan, the mean pretreatment concentration of LDL-C is higher among heterozygous FH patients reported since 2005 than in patients reported before 2005 (231 vs 196 mg/dL, P <.001). This review of DNA data for Han Chinese patients with FH updates the frequency and spectrum of FH scenarios. Large-scale investigations are needed to determine the interactions between mutations and LDL-C level in relation to cardiovascular risk assessment and management.
- Familial hypercholesterolemia
- Low-density lipoprotein receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine