Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via G2/M cell cycle arrest

Shih Chung Hsu, Chien Chih Ou, Jhy Wei Li, Tzu Chao Chuang, Han Pin Kuo, Jah Yao Liu, Chin Shiang Chen, Song Chow Lin, Ching Hua Su, Ming Ching Kao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ganoderma, known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been traditionally administered throughout Asia for centuries as a cancer treatment and for other medicinal purposes. Aim of the study: To investigate the inhibitory activity and explore the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to test the side effects of Ganoderma tsugae. Materials and methods: Methanol fraction was obtained from dried fruiting bodies of Ganoderma. TLC and HPLC were performed to differentiate and confirm the identification of different species as well as to quantify the bioactive molecules in methanol extracts of Ganoderma species. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assay as well as tumorigenesis study were used to assess the anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Using flow cytometry and Western Blots, we examined further the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect. Finally, biochemical and hematological profiles and pathological examinations were used to evaluate the safety. Results: The Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation caused by accumulating cells in G2/M phase, and it may be through downregulation of cyclin A and B1 and upregulation of p21 and p27. Tumorigenesis study in nude mice revealed the extracts caused tumor shrinkage. Additionally, safety assay showed Ganoderma tsugae extracts caused no significant side effects in an animal model. Conclusions: This study provides molecular evidence that Ganoderma tsugae extracts exert anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. More importantly, no significant physiological changes resulting from treatment with Ganoderma tsugae extracts were observed in the animal model. Therefore, these data provide new insights into the possible therapeutic use of Ganoderma tsugae for treating colorectal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-401
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume120
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 8 2008

Fingerprint

Ganoderma
G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Colorectal Neoplasms
Growth
Reishi
Neoplasms
Methanol
Carcinogenesis
Animal Models
Far-Western Blotting
Cyclin B1
Safety
Cyclin A
Trypan Blue
G2 Phase
Therapeutic Uses
Nude Mice
Cell Division
Flow Cytometry
Adenocarcinoma

Keywords

  • Cancer therapy
  • Colo205
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Ganoderma tsugae
  • Lingzhi (Reishi)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via G2/M cell cycle arrest. / Hsu, Shih Chung; Ou, Chien Chih; Li, Jhy Wei; Chuang, Tzu Chao; Kuo, Han Pin; Liu, Jah Yao; Chen, Chin Shiang; Lin, Song Chow; Su, Ching Hua; Kao, Ming Ching.

In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 120, No. 3, 08.12.2008, p. 394-401.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hsu, SC, Ou, CC, Li, JW, Chuang, TC, Kuo, HP, Liu, JY, Chen, CS, Lin, SC, Su, CH & Kao, MC 2008, 'Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via G2/M cell cycle arrest', Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 394-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.09.025
Hsu, Shih Chung ; Ou, Chien Chih ; Li, Jhy Wei ; Chuang, Tzu Chao ; Kuo, Han Pin ; Liu, Jah Yao ; Chen, Chin Shiang ; Lin, Song Chow ; Su, Ching Hua ; Kao, Ming Ching. / Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth via G2/M cell cycle arrest. In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 ; Vol. 120, No. 3. pp. 394-401.
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abstract = "Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ganoderma, known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been traditionally administered throughout Asia for centuries as a cancer treatment and for other medicinal purposes. Aim of the study: To investigate the inhibitory activity and explore the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to test the side effects of Ganoderma tsugae. Materials and methods: Methanol fraction was obtained from dried fruiting bodies of Ganoderma. TLC and HPLC were performed to differentiate and confirm the identification of different species as well as to quantify the bioactive molecules in methanol extracts of Ganoderma species. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assay as well as tumorigenesis study were used to assess the anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Using flow cytometry and Western Blots, we examined further the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect. Finally, biochemical and hematological profiles and pathological examinations were used to evaluate the safety. Results: The Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation caused by accumulating cells in G2/M phase, and it may be through downregulation of cyclin A and B1 and upregulation of p21 and p27. Tumorigenesis study in nude mice revealed the extracts caused tumor shrinkage. Additionally, safety assay showed Ganoderma tsugae extracts caused no significant side effects in an animal model. Conclusions: This study provides molecular evidence that Ganoderma tsugae extracts exert anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. More importantly, no significant physiological changes resulting from treatment with Ganoderma tsugae extracts were observed in the animal model. Therefore, these data provide new insights into the possible therapeutic use of Ganoderma tsugae for treating colorectal cancer.",
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AU - Ou, Chien Chih

AU - Li, Jhy Wei

AU - Chuang, Tzu Chao

AU - Kuo, Han Pin

AU - Liu, Jah Yao

AU - Chen, Chin Shiang

AU - Lin, Song Chow

AU - Su, Ching Hua

AU - Kao, Ming Ching

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N2 - Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ganoderma, known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been traditionally administered throughout Asia for centuries as a cancer treatment and for other medicinal purposes. Aim of the study: To investigate the inhibitory activity and explore the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to test the side effects of Ganoderma tsugae. Materials and methods: Methanol fraction was obtained from dried fruiting bodies of Ganoderma. TLC and HPLC were performed to differentiate and confirm the identification of different species as well as to quantify the bioactive molecules in methanol extracts of Ganoderma species. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assay as well as tumorigenesis study were used to assess the anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Using flow cytometry and Western Blots, we examined further the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect. Finally, biochemical and hematological profiles and pathological examinations were used to evaluate the safety. Results: The Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation caused by accumulating cells in G2/M phase, and it may be through downregulation of cyclin A and B1 and upregulation of p21 and p27. Tumorigenesis study in nude mice revealed the extracts caused tumor shrinkage. Additionally, safety assay showed Ganoderma tsugae extracts caused no significant side effects in an animal model. Conclusions: This study provides molecular evidence that Ganoderma tsugae extracts exert anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. More importantly, no significant physiological changes resulting from treatment with Ganoderma tsugae extracts were observed in the animal model. Therefore, these data provide new insights into the possible therapeutic use of Ganoderma tsugae for treating colorectal cancer.

AB - Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ganoderma, known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been traditionally administered throughout Asia for centuries as a cancer treatment and for other medicinal purposes. Aim of the study: To investigate the inhibitory activity and explore the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to test the side effects of Ganoderma tsugae. Materials and methods: Methanol fraction was obtained from dried fruiting bodies of Ganoderma. TLC and HPLC were performed to differentiate and confirm the identification of different species as well as to quantify the bioactive molecules in methanol extracts of Ganoderma species. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assay as well as tumorigenesis study were used to assess the anti-tumor effect in vitro and in vivo. Using flow cytometry and Western Blots, we examined further the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumor effect. Finally, biochemical and hematological profiles and pathological examinations were used to evaluate the safety. Results: The Ganoderma tsugae extracts inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation caused by accumulating cells in G2/M phase, and it may be through downregulation of cyclin A and B1 and upregulation of p21 and p27. Tumorigenesis study in nude mice revealed the extracts caused tumor shrinkage. Additionally, safety assay showed Ganoderma tsugae extracts caused no significant side effects in an animal model. Conclusions: This study provides molecular evidence that Ganoderma tsugae extracts exert anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. More importantly, no significant physiological changes resulting from treatment with Ganoderma tsugae extracts were observed in the animal model. Therefore, these data provide new insights into the possible therapeutic use of Ganoderma tsugae for treating colorectal cancer.

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