BACKGROUND: Interactions and joint effects of galectin-3 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on risks of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality remain unclear in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).
METHODS: Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of mortality risks were analyzed between higher and lower concentration groups of serum galectin-3 and VCAM-1. The modification effect between serum galectin-3 and VCAM-1 on mortality risk was investigated using an interaction product term.
RESULTS: During follow-up, galectin-3 and VCAM-1 were associated with incremental risks of all-cause mortality (aHR: 1.038 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.001⁻1.077) and 1.002 (95% CI: 1.001⁻1.003), respectively). Nonetheless, VCAM-1 but not galectin-3 predicted CV mortality (aHR: 1.043 (95% CI: 0.993⁻1.096) and 1.002 (95% CI: 1.001⁻1.003), respectively). In the interaction analysis, patients with combined higher galectin-3 (>29.5 ng/mL) and VCAM-1 (>1546.9 ng/mL) were at the greatest risk of all-cause and CV mortality (aHR: 4.6 (95% CI: 1.6⁻13.4), and 4.2 (95% CI: 1.3⁻14.4), respectively). The interactions between galectin-3 and VCAM-1 with respect to all-cause and CV mortality were statistically significant (p < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 and VCAM-1 could serve as a promising dual biomarker for prognostic assessment, considering their joint effects on pathogenesis of leukocyte trafficking and atherothrombosis.