Functional correlates of Doppler flow study of the female urethral vasculature

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Abstract

Objectives: To examine the effect of individual patient factors (age, parity, body mass index, menstrual cycle, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, bladder neck position and urethral mobility) on the appearance of Doppler flow in urethral vessels, to investigate the association between the Doppler flow parameters and intrinsic urethral function, storage and voiding, and to explore differences in the urethral vasculature between subjects with and without urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Methods: Over a 4-year period we prospectively performed imaging studies in 355 women, including 244 who denied any lower urinary tract symptoms within the previous 3 months (Group A) and 111 who had had lower urinary tract symptoms (Group B). Studies included morphologic assessment and Doppler flow investigation of the lower urinary tract. Vascular flow velocity and vessel density in the urethral vasculature were measured. For women in Group B, multichannel urodynamic studies were also performed. Results: The urethral vasculature has five main branches of vessels. Their appearance was not affected by the menstrual cycle or menopause except for those of the anterior vaginal vessel and anterior branch of the middle urethral vessel. Other than that of the posterior urethral vessel, in which there was a correlation with parity, the resistance index (RI) was not affected by individual patient factors. However, there was a correlation between the vascular index (VI) and individual factors such as age (T = -0.336, P = 0.002), body mass index (r = -0.287, P = 0.028), menopause (r = -0.402, P <0.001), and hormone replacement therapy (r = 0.392, P = 0.027). Only the VI and RI of the posterior urethral vessel correlated significantly with the urethral pressure profile. In subjects with lower urinary tract symptoms, the appearance of the urethral vasculature on power Doppler imaging and the corresponding RI and VI values were not correlated with objective evidence of USI. Conclusion: Patient factors may affect specific Doppler flow parameters of the urethral vasculature, which are related to intrinsic resting urethral closure. There is no difference in the appearance of the urethral vasculature in subjects with or without USI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-102
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Urodynamics
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
vessels
Menopause
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Menstrual Cycle
Parity
Vascular Resistance
Blood Vessels
Body Mass Index
hormones
Age Factors
Urinary Tract
therapy
parity
Urinary Bladder
age factor
Pressure
cycles
bladder

Keywords

  • Power Doppler
  • Resistance index
  • Urethral function
  • Urethral vasculature
  • Vascular index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Cite this

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title = "Functional correlates of Doppler flow study of the female urethral vasculature",
abstract = "Objectives: To examine the effect of individual patient factors (age, parity, body mass index, menstrual cycle, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, bladder neck position and urethral mobility) on the appearance of Doppler flow in urethral vessels, to investigate the association between the Doppler flow parameters and intrinsic urethral function, storage and voiding, and to explore differences in the urethral vasculature between subjects with and without urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Methods: Over a 4-year period we prospectively performed imaging studies in 355 women, including 244 who denied any lower urinary tract symptoms within the previous 3 months (Group A) and 111 who had had lower urinary tract symptoms (Group B). Studies included morphologic assessment and Doppler flow investigation of the lower urinary tract. Vascular flow velocity and vessel density in the urethral vasculature were measured. For women in Group B, multichannel urodynamic studies were also performed. Results: The urethral vasculature has five main branches of vessels. Their appearance was not affected by the menstrual cycle or menopause except for those of the anterior vaginal vessel and anterior branch of the middle urethral vessel. Other than that of the posterior urethral vessel, in which there was a correlation with parity, the resistance index (RI) was not affected by individual patient factors. However, there was a correlation between the vascular index (VI) and individual factors such as age (T = -0.336, P = 0.002), body mass index (r = -0.287, P = 0.028), menopause (r = -0.402, P <0.001), and hormone replacement therapy (r = 0.392, P = 0.027). Only the VI and RI of the posterior urethral vessel correlated significantly with the urethral pressure profile. In subjects with lower urinary tract symptoms, the appearance of the urethral vasculature on power Doppler imaging and the corresponding RI and VI values were not correlated with objective evidence of USI. Conclusion: Patient factors may affect specific Doppler flow parameters of the urethral vasculature, which are related to intrinsic resting urethral closure. There is no difference in the appearance of the urethral vasculature in subjects with or without USI.",
keywords = "Power Doppler, Resistance index, Urethral function, Urethral vasculature, Vascular index",
author = "Yang, {J. M.} and Yang, {S. H.} and Huang, {W. C.}",
year = "2006",
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journal = "Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology",
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T1 - Functional correlates of Doppler flow study of the female urethral vasculature

AU - Yang, J. M.

AU - Yang, S. H.

AU - Huang, W. C.

PY - 2006/7

Y1 - 2006/7

N2 - Objectives: To examine the effect of individual patient factors (age, parity, body mass index, menstrual cycle, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, bladder neck position and urethral mobility) on the appearance of Doppler flow in urethral vessels, to investigate the association between the Doppler flow parameters and intrinsic urethral function, storage and voiding, and to explore differences in the urethral vasculature between subjects with and without urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Methods: Over a 4-year period we prospectively performed imaging studies in 355 women, including 244 who denied any lower urinary tract symptoms within the previous 3 months (Group A) and 111 who had had lower urinary tract symptoms (Group B). Studies included morphologic assessment and Doppler flow investigation of the lower urinary tract. Vascular flow velocity and vessel density in the urethral vasculature were measured. For women in Group B, multichannel urodynamic studies were also performed. Results: The urethral vasculature has five main branches of vessels. Their appearance was not affected by the menstrual cycle or menopause except for those of the anterior vaginal vessel and anterior branch of the middle urethral vessel. Other than that of the posterior urethral vessel, in which there was a correlation with parity, the resistance index (RI) was not affected by individual patient factors. However, there was a correlation between the vascular index (VI) and individual factors such as age (T = -0.336, P = 0.002), body mass index (r = -0.287, P = 0.028), menopause (r = -0.402, P <0.001), and hormone replacement therapy (r = 0.392, P = 0.027). Only the VI and RI of the posterior urethral vessel correlated significantly with the urethral pressure profile. In subjects with lower urinary tract symptoms, the appearance of the urethral vasculature on power Doppler imaging and the corresponding RI and VI values were not correlated with objective evidence of USI. Conclusion: Patient factors may affect specific Doppler flow parameters of the urethral vasculature, which are related to intrinsic resting urethral closure. There is no difference in the appearance of the urethral vasculature in subjects with or without USI.

AB - Objectives: To examine the effect of individual patient factors (age, parity, body mass index, menstrual cycle, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, bladder neck position and urethral mobility) on the appearance of Doppler flow in urethral vessels, to investigate the association between the Doppler flow parameters and intrinsic urethral function, storage and voiding, and to explore differences in the urethral vasculature between subjects with and without urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Methods: Over a 4-year period we prospectively performed imaging studies in 355 women, including 244 who denied any lower urinary tract symptoms within the previous 3 months (Group A) and 111 who had had lower urinary tract symptoms (Group B). Studies included morphologic assessment and Doppler flow investigation of the lower urinary tract. Vascular flow velocity and vessel density in the urethral vasculature were measured. For women in Group B, multichannel urodynamic studies were also performed. Results: The urethral vasculature has five main branches of vessels. Their appearance was not affected by the menstrual cycle or menopause except for those of the anterior vaginal vessel and anterior branch of the middle urethral vessel. Other than that of the posterior urethral vessel, in which there was a correlation with parity, the resistance index (RI) was not affected by individual patient factors. However, there was a correlation between the vascular index (VI) and individual factors such as age (T = -0.336, P = 0.002), body mass index (r = -0.287, P = 0.028), menopause (r = -0.402, P <0.001), and hormone replacement therapy (r = 0.392, P = 0.027). Only the VI and RI of the posterior urethral vessel correlated significantly with the urethral pressure profile. In subjects with lower urinary tract symptoms, the appearance of the urethral vasculature on power Doppler imaging and the corresponding RI and VI values were not correlated with objective evidence of USI. Conclusion: Patient factors may affect specific Doppler flow parameters of the urethral vasculature, which are related to intrinsic resting urethral closure. There is no difference in the appearance of the urethral vasculature in subjects with or without USI.

KW - Power Doppler

KW - Resistance index

KW - Urethral function

KW - Urethral vasculature

KW - Vascular index

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