Fractional laser as a tool to enhance the skin permeation of 5-aminolevulinic acid with minimal skin disruption: A comparison with conventional erbium:YAG laser

Woan Ruoh Lee, Shing Chuan Shen, Man Hui Pai, Hung Hsu Yang, Cheng Yin Yuan, Jia You Fang

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation of topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhanced by a fractional laser pretreatment. This was achieved by applying an array of microscopic treatment zones (MTZ) to the skin by ablation of superficial stratum corneum in a determined area. Re-epithelialization determined by transepidermal water loss was completed within 1day after fractional laser irradiation. The conventional laser used in comparison showed more severe skin disruption and a greater recovery duration of 2days. The in vitro ALA permeation was measured using a Franz cell apparatus, with nude mouse skin and porcine skin as the permeation barriers. The efficacy of the enhancement was determined as a function of various laser fluences (2 and 3J/cm2) and number of passes (1-6 passes). The flux of ALA via laser-treated nude mouse skin was 27-124-fold higher than that across intact skin. A 3-260-fold increase in ALA flux was detected by using the porcine skin as the permeation barrier. The skin permeation was also investigated in a model of hyperproliferative skin obtained by repeated tape stripping. The results showed that the hyperproliferative skin was more permeable to ALA in comparison to the normal skin. The in vivo localization of PpIX in nude mouse skin was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. As expected, an intense red fluorescence was observed in the lower epidermis and upper dermis after fractional laser irradiation. The penetration depth was also increased by the laser. The safety and efficacy of enhancing ALA permeation were demonstrated by using the fractional laser at low fluences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-133
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
Volume145
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010

Fingerprint

Aminolevulinic Acid
Solid-State Lasers
Lasers
Skin
Nude Mice
Swine
Re-Epithelialization
Dermis
Epidermis
Confocal Microscopy
Cornea

Keywords

  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid
  • Erbium:YAG laser
  • Fractional laser
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Skin permeation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

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title = "Fractional laser as a tool to enhance the skin permeation of 5-aminolevulinic acid with minimal skin disruption: A comparison with conventional erbium:YAG laser",
abstract = "The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation of topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhanced by a fractional laser pretreatment. This was achieved by applying an array of microscopic treatment zones (MTZ) to the skin by ablation of superficial stratum corneum in a determined area. Re-epithelialization determined by transepidermal water loss was completed within 1day after fractional laser irradiation. The conventional laser used in comparison showed more severe skin disruption and a greater recovery duration of 2days. The in vitro ALA permeation was measured using a Franz cell apparatus, with nude mouse skin and porcine skin as the permeation barriers. The efficacy of the enhancement was determined as a function of various laser fluences (2 and 3J/cm2) and number of passes (1-6 passes). The flux of ALA via laser-treated nude mouse skin was 27-124-fold higher than that across intact skin. A 3-260-fold increase in ALA flux was detected by using the porcine skin as the permeation barrier. The skin permeation was also investigated in a model of hyperproliferative skin obtained by repeated tape stripping. The results showed that the hyperproliferative skin was more permeable to ALA in comparison to the normal skin. The in vivo localization of PpIX in nude mouse skin was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. As expected, an intense red fluorescence was observed in the lower epidermis and upper dermis after fractional laser irradiation. The penetration depth was also increased by the laser. The safety and efficacy of enhancing ALA permeation were demonstrated by using the fractional laser at low fluences.",
keywords = "5-Aminolevulinic acid, Erbium:YAG laser, Fractional laser, Photodynamic therapy, Skin permeation",
author = "Lee, {Woan Ruoh} and Shen, {Shing Chuan} and Pai, {Man Hui} and Yang, {Hung Hsu} and Yuan, {Cheng Yin} and Fang, {Jia You}",
year = "2010",
month = "7",
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language = "English",
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T1 - Fractional laser as a tool to enhance the skin permeation of 5-aminolevulinic acid with minimal skin disruption

T2 - A comparison with conventional erbium:YAG laser

AU - Lee, Woan Ruoh

AU - Shen, Shing Chuan

AU - Pai, Man Hui

AU - Yang, Hung Hsu

AU - Yuan, Cheng Yin

AU - Fang, Jia You

PY - 2010/7

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N2 - The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation of topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhanced by a fractional laser pretreatment. This was achieved by applying an array of microscopic treatment zones (MTZ) to the skin by ablation of superficial stratum corneum in a determined area. Re-epithelialization determined by transepidermal water loss was completed within 1day after fractional laser irradiation. The conventional laser used in comparison showed more severe skin disruption and a greater recovery duration of 2days. The in vitro ALA permeation was measured using a Franz cell apparatus, with nude mouse skin and porcine skin as the permeation barriers. The efficacy of the enhancement was determined as a function of various laser fluences (2 and 3J/cm2) and number of passes (1-6 passes). The flux of ALA via laser-treated nude mouse skin was 27-124-fold higher than that across intact skin. A 3-260-fold increase in ALA flux was detected by using the porcine skin as the permeation barrier. The skin permeation was also investigated in a model of hyperproliferative skin obtained by repeated tape stripping. The results showed that the hyperproliferative skin was more permeable to ALA in comparison to the normal skin. The in vivo localization of PpIX in nude mouse skin was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. As expected, an intense red fluorescence was observed in the lower epidermis and upper dermis after fractional laser irradiation. The penetration depth was also increased by the laser. The safety and efficacy of enhancing ALA permeation were demonstrated by using the fractional laser at low fluences.

AB - The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation of topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhanced by a fractional laser pretreatment. This was achieved by applying an array of microscopic treatment zones (MTZ) to the skin by ablation of superficial stratum corneum in a determined area. Re-epithelialization determined by transepidermal water loss was completed within 1day after fractional laser irradiation. The conventional laser used in comparison showed more severe skin disruption and a greater recovery duration of 2days. The in vitro ALA permeation was measured using a Franz cell apparatus, with nude mouse skin and porcine skin as the permeation barriers. The efficacy of the enhancement was determined as a function of various laser fluences (2 and 3J/cm2) and number of passes (1-6 passes). The flux of ALA via laser-treated nude mouse skin was 27-124-fold higher than that across intact skin. A 3-260-fold increase in ALA flux was detected by using the porcine skin as the permeation barrier. The skin permeation was also investigated in a model of hyperproliferative skin obtained by repeated tape stripping. The results showed that the hyperproliferative skin was more permeable to ALA in comparison to the normal skin. The in vivo localization of PpIX in nude mouse skin was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. As expected, an intense red fluorescence was observed in the lower epidermis and upper dermis after fractional laser irradiation. The penetration depth was also increased by the laser. The safety and efficacy of enhancing ALA permeation were demonstrated by using the fractional laser at low fluences.

KW - 5-Aminolevulinic acid

KW - Erbium:YAG laser

KW - Fractional laser

KW - Photodynamic therapy

KW - Skin permeation

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