Formulation, characteristics and anti-bacterial effects of Euphorbia hirta L. mouthwash

Benni Iskandar, Anita Lukman, Sandika Syaputra, Ucy N.H. Al-Abrori, Meircurius D.C. Surboyo, Ching Kuo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Mouthwash is a liquid solution used to improve oral health and breath freshness as well as reduce oral bacteria. This study aims to formulate a Euphorbia hirta L. ethanol extract for mouthwash, evaluate the physical properties, and determine its anti-bacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans. Methods: Each mouthwash formula was created by utilising a solubilisation technique. Three mouthwash formulas were created from different concentrations of Euphorbia hirta L. ethanol extract (0.5%, 1%, and 2%), and referred to as F1, F2, and F3. The organoleptic properties, pH levels, specific gravity, viscosity, flow properties, stability, irritation level, contact time, and anti-bacterial effects were evaluated for each concentration. Result: The resulting formulas featured a distinctive smell of oleum menthae piperitae and had a sweet and spicy taste. These characteristics remained unaffected during storage. The acidity levels ranged from 4.59 to 6.0, the weight masses ranged from 0.9693 to 1.0710 g/ml, and the viscosity ranged from 1.50 to 3.00 cP. F3 concentration was non-irritating with mucus production at 11.325%, had lower contact time with a neutralisation of 57.14% of Streptococcus mutans colonies in 30 seconds, and showed stable anti-bacterial control against Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.000) within the first week of use. Conclusion: The study results offer the first proof of Euphorbia hirta L. used for improving human health. The formulation features the ideal physical and stability characteristics of mouthwash, and possesses anti-bacterial properties that can potentially combat Streptococcus mutans. Clinical use of the formulated mouthwash must be explored in future research.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Taibah University Medical Sciences
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Euphorbia hirta L.
  • Human health
  • Medicine
  • Mouthwash
  • Streptococcus mutans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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