The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between depression and self-care behavior and predictors of self-care behavior in AIDS patients. Both the Beck Depression Inventory and the Self-care behavior Scale were used for data collection. A total of 121 AIDS patients who met the selection criteria were recruited. Data was collected through structured questionnaires. The SPSS/17.0 Windows software statistical package was used for data analysis, including t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression with stepwise procedure. The results revealed that no significant difference was observed in the individual attributes and depression level. Subjects who use the anti-viral drugs have better self care behavior (t=-8.01, p＜.0001). There is no significant correlation between depression and self care (r=-.16, p=0.08), but there is a negative correlation between depression and ”diet and exercise” of self-care behavior (r=-.19, p=0.03). Using the anti-viral drugs is a significant predictor and can explain 35% of the variation in self -care behavior (F=64.25, p＜.0001) in AIDS patients. Both using the anti-viral drugs and individual economic circumstance are significant predictors and can explain 37% of the variation in self-care behavior (F=21.17, p＜0.0001) in AIDS patients with depression tendency. The results of this study provide the status and predictors of depression and self-care behavior in AIDS patients which contribute to improve the quality of care in AIDS patients.