4 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To explore factors affecting the presence of two reflex pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) patterns in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of pelvic floor ultrasonography and urodynamic data for 667 consecutive symptomatic women with pelvic floor disorders. We identified on ultrasonography the presence or absence of two reflex PFMC patterns, anorectal lift (ARL) and inward clitoral motion (ICM), preceding or occurring during coughing, and evaluated their associations with possible factors affecting reflex PFMC reactivity, including patient demographics, pelvic organ prolapse stages, ultrasonography findings and urodynamic data. Results Of the 667 women, 560 (84.0%) clearly demonstrated reflex ARL and 536 (80.4%) demonstrated ICM. There were significant differences in age (P <0.001), parity (P = 0.033) and menopausal status (P = 0.005) between women with and those without reflex ICM before or during coughing. The multivariable logistic regression model showed that age was the only independent factor associated with presence of reflex ICM (odds ratio, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), P = 0.017). In contrast, no significant differences were noted between women with and without reflex ARL. Conclusions Increasing age is negatively associated with the presence of reflex ICM during coughing in symptomatic women with pelvic floor disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-229
Number of pages6
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


  • pelvic floor disorders
  • pelvic floor muscle
  • reflex contraction
  • urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Medicine(all)


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