Guided bone regeneration surgery is an important dental operation used to regenerate enough bone to successfully heal dental implants. When this technique is performed on maxilla sinuses, hyaluronic acid (HLA) can be used as an auxiliary material to improve the graft material handling properties. Recent studies have indicated that low-molecular hyaluronic acid (L-HLA) provides a better regeneration ability than high-molecular-weight (H-HLA) analogues. The aim of this study was to fabricate an L-HLA-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hybrid to promote bone regeneration while maintaining viscosity. The proliferation effect of fabricated L-HLA was tested using dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was examined using cells cultured with L-HLA combined with extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 inhibitors. The bone growth promotion of fabricated L-HLA/CMC hybrids was tested using an animal model. Micro-computer tomography (Micro-CT) and histological images were evaluated quantitatively to compare the differences in the osteogenesis between the H-HLA and L-HLA. Our results show that the fabricated L-HLA can bind to CD44 on the DPSC cell membranes and affect MAPK pathways, resulting in a prompt proliferation rate increase. Micro CT images show that new bone formation in rabbit calvaria defects treated with L-HLA/CMC was almost two times higher than in defects filled with H-HLA/CMC (p < 0.05) at 4 weeks, a trend that remained at 8 weeks and was confirmed by HE-stained images. According to these findings, it is reasonable to conclude that L-HLA provides better bone healing than H-HLA, and that the L-HLA/CMC fabricated in this study is a potential candidate for improving bone healing efficiency when a guided bone regeneration surgery was performed.