Expression of p16INK4A in Papanicolaou smears containing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance from the uterine cervix

Shin Nieh, Su Feng Chen, Tang Yuan Chu, Hung Cheng Lai, Earl Fu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective. This study aimed to verify one of the major diagnostic dilemmas in routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) were tested immunocytochemically for p16INK4A (p16), and results were correlated with follow-up biopsies for more accurate diagnoses. Methods. The study included 66 Pap smears of ASCUS diagnostic categories, all of which were correlated histologically. The cytological diagnoses of ASCUS were further classified cytologically according to the 2001 Bethesda System, as "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)" or "atypical squamous cells which cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H)." All Pap smears were decolorized and immunostained with the primary anti-p16 antibody, clone E6H4. Immunoreactivity for p16 was correlated with histological sections (which were also immunostained for comparison) in a semiblind fashion. Results. Of the 66 smears containing ASCUS, 47 (71%) were reclassified as ASC-US and 19 (29%) as ASC-H. Follow-up biopsies revealed that 21 (32%) cervices had no obvious abnormalities but only reactive changes. A significant proportion of histological diagnoses were CIN1/LSIL (24 cases, 36%), CIN2 or 3/HSIL (17 cases, 26%), squamous cell carcinoma (two cases, 3%), or AIS/adenocarcinoma (two cases, 3%). The p16 immunocytochemical stain was reactive in 40 (60.6%) of 66 smears: either weakly/sporadically (18 cases, 45%) or strongly positive (22 cases, 55%). Conversely, 26 (39.4%) of the smears were negative for p16 and displayed predominantly reactive changes. However, five cases of LSIL and one of HSIL were negative for p16. From the results of p16 immunoreactivity of atypical cells for detection of biopsy-proved significant lesions (HSIL or higher), this analysis was highly sensitive (sensitivity, 95%) and specific (specificity, 96%) and had favorable positive (91%) and negative (98%) predictive values. Conclusion. On the basis of both morphological and immunostaining patterns, there is a clear association between strong p16 immunostaining of atypical cells in the smears and the presence of significant lesions in the cervix, except in two patients. Similarly, there is a clear association between the lack of p16 expression and the absence of cervical lesions. The p16 immunocytochemical stain can be applied successfully to conventional Pap smears and may serve as a useful biomarker in ASCUS-containing smear diagnoses. This may offer a more objective parameter to help clarify this ambiguous area in gynecological cytopathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-208
Number of pages8
JournalGynecologic Oncology
Volume91
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Papanicolaou Test
Cervix Uteri
Biopsy
Coloring Agents
Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
Clone Cells
Biomarkers

Keywords

  • ASC-H
  • ASC-US
  • ASCUS
  • Histological correlation
  • Immunocytochemical detection
  • P16
  • Papanicolaou smear
  • Significant lesions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Expression of p16INK4A in Papanicolaou smears containing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance from the uterine cervix. / Nieh, Shin; Chen, Su Feng; Chu, Tang Yuan; Lai, Hung Cheng; Fu, Earl.

In: Gynecologic Oncology, Vol. 91, No. 1, 01.10.2003, p. 201-208.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective. This study aimed to verify one of the major diagnostic dilemmas in routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) were tested immunocytochemically for p16INK4A (p16), and results were correlated with follow-up biopsies for more accurate diagnoses. Methods. The study included 66 Pap smears of ASCUS diagnostic categories, all of which were correlated histologically. The cytological diagnoses of ASCUS were further classified cytologically according to the 2001 Bethesda System, as {"}atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US){"} or {"}atypical squamous cells which cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H).{"} All Pap smears were decolorized and immunostained with the primary anti-p16 antibody, clone E6H4. Immunoreactivity for p16 was correlated with histological sections (which were also immunostained for comparison) in a semiblind fashion. Results. Of the 66 smears containing ASCUS, 47 (71{\%}) were reclassified as ASC-US and 19 (29{\%}) as ASC-H. Follow-up biopsies revealed that 21 (32{\%}) cervices had no obvious abnormalities but only reactive changes. A significant proportion of histological diagnoses were CIN1/LSIL (24 cases, 36{\%}), CIN2 or 3/HSIL (17 cases, 26{\%}), squamous cell carcinoma (two cases, 3{\%}), or AIS/adenocarcinoma (two cases, 3{\%}). The p16 immunocytochemical stain was reactive in 40 (60.6{\%}) of 66 smears: either weakly/sporadically (18 cases, 45{\%}) or strongly positive (22 cases, 55{\%}). Conversely, 26 (39.4{\%}) of the smears were negative for p16 and displayed predominantly reactive changes. However, five cases of LSIL and one of HSIL were negative for p16. From the results of p16 immunoreactivity of atypical cells for detection of biopsy-proved significant lesions (HSIL or higher), this analysis was highly sensitive (sensitivity, 95{\%}) and specific (specificity, 96{\%}) and had favorable positive (91{\%}) and negative (98{\%}) predictive values. Conclusion. On the basis of both morphological and immunostaining patterns, there is a clear association between strong p16 immunostaining of atypical cells in the smears and the presence of significant lesions in the cervix, except in two patients. Similarly, there is a clear association between the lack of p16 expression and the absence of cervical lesions. The p16 immunocytochemical stain can be applied successfully to conventional Pap smears and may serve as a useful biomarker in ASCUS-containing smear diagnoses. This may offer a more objective parameter to help clarify this ambiguous area in gynecological cytopathology.",
keywords = "ASC-H, ASC-US, ASCUS, Histological correlation, Immunocytochemical detection, P16, Papanicolaou smear, Significant lesions",
author = "Shin Nieh and Chen, {Su Feng} and Chu, {Tang Yuan} and Lai, {Hung Cheng} and Earl Fu",
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AU - Nieh, Shin

AU - Chen, Su Feng

AU - Chu, Tang Yuan

AU - Lai, Hung Cheng

AU - Fu, Earl

PY - 2003/10/1

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N2 - Objective. This study aimed to verify one of the major diagnostic dilemmas in routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) were tested immunocytochemically for p16INK4A (p16), and results were correlated with follow-up biopsies for more accurate diagnoses. Methods. The study included 66 Pap smears of ASCUS diagnostic categories, all of which were correlated histologically. The cytological diagnoses of ASCUS were further classified cytologically according to the 2001 Bethesda System, as "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)" or "atypical squamous cells which cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H)." All Pap smears were decolorized and immunostained with the primary anti-p16 antibody, clone E6H4. Immunoreactivity for p16 was correlated with histological sections (which were also immunostained for comparison) in a semiblind fashion. Results. Of the 66 smears containing ASCUS, 47 (71%) were reclassified as ASC-US and 19 (29%) as ASC-H. Follow-up biopsies revealed that 21 (32%) cervices had no obvious abnormalities but only reactive changes. A significant proportion of histological diagnoses were CIN1/LSIL (24 cases, 36%), CIN2 or 3/HSIL (17 cases, 26%), squamous cell carcinoma (two cases, 3%), or AIS/adenocarcinoma (two cases, 3%). The p16 immunocytochemical stain was reactive in 40 (60.6%) of 66 smears: either weakly/sporadically (18 cases, 45%) or strongly positive (22 cases, 55%). Conversely, 26 (39.4%) of the smears were negative for p16 and displayed predominantly reactive changes. However, five cases of LSIL and one of HSIL were negative for p16. From the results of p16 immunoreactivity of atypical cells for detection of biopsy-proved significant lesions (HSIL or higher), this analysis was highly sensitive (sensitivity, 95%) and specific (specificity, 96%) and had favorable positive (91%) and negative (98%) predictive values. Conclusion. On the basis of both morphological and immunostaining patterns, there is a clear association between strong p16 immunostaining of atypical cells in the smears and the presence of significant lesions in the cervix, except in two patients. Similarly, there is a clear association between the lack of p16 expression and the absence of cervical lesions. The p16 immunocytochemical stain can be applied successfully to conventional Pap smears and may serve as a useful biomarker in ASCUS-containing smear diagnoses. This may offer a more objective parameter to help clarify this ambiguous area in gynecological cytopathology.

AB - Objective. This study aimed to verify one of the major diagnostic dilemmas in routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) were tested immunocytochemically for p16INK4A (p16), and results were correlated with follow-up biopsies for more accurate diagnoses. Methods. The study included 66 Pap smears of ASCUS diagnostic categories, all of which were correlated histologically. The cytological diagnoses of ASCUS were further classified cytologically according to the 2001 Bethesda System, as "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)" or "atypical squamous cells which cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H)." All Pap smears were decolorized and immunostained with the primary anti-p16 antibody, clone E6H4. Immunoreactivity for p16 was correlated with histological sections (which were also immunostained for comparison) in a semiblind fashion. Results. Of the 66 smears containing ASCUS, 47 (71%) were reclassified as ASC-US and 19 (29%) as ASC-H. Follow-up biopsies revealed that 21 (32%) cervices had no obvious abnormalities but only reactive changes. A significant proportion of histological diagnoses were CIN1/LSIL (24 cases, 36%), CIN2 or 3/HSIL (17 cases, 26%), squamous cell carcinoma (two cases, 3%), or AIS/adenocarcinoma (two cases, 3%). The p16 immunocytochemical stain was reactive in 40 (60.6%) of 66 smears: either weakly/sporadically (18 cases, 45%) or strongly positive (22 cases, 55%). Conversely, 26 (39.4%) of the smears were negative for p16 and displayed predominantly reactive changes. However, five cases of LSIL and one of HSIL were negative for p16. From the results of p16 immunoreactivity of atypical cells for detection of biopsy-proved significant lesions (HSIL or higher), this analysis was highly sensitive (sensitivity, 95%) and specific (specificity, 96%) and had favorable positive (91%) and negative (98%) predictive values. Conclusion. On the basis of both morphological and immunostaining patterns, there is a clear association between strong p16 immunostaining of atypical cells in the smears and the presence of significant lesions in the cervix, except in two patients. Similarly, there is a clear association between the lack of p16 expression and the absence of cervical lesions. The p16 immunocytochemical stain can be applied successfully to conventional Pap smears and may serve as a useful biomarker in ASCUS-containing smear diagnoses. This may offer a more objective parameter to help clarify this ambiguous area in gynecological cytopathology.

KW - ASC-H

KW - ASC-US

KW - ASCUS

KW - Histological correlation

KW - Immunocytochemical detection

KW - P16

KW - Papanicolaou smear

KW - Significant lesions

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