Abstract

Circadian and sleep disturbances are common behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia; circadian rhythm-related molecules may be altered in dementia patients. This study investigated the expression of the period 1 clock gene product (PER1), which is involved in circadian rhythms, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thought to generate nitric oxide, important in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. Specifically, we investigated the difference in expression of these two genes between patients with cognitive impairment and controls. We studied iNOS and PER1 mRNA expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral leukocytes during REM sleep, non-REM sleep and wake stages in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 5), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 8) and controls (n = 9) during polysomnography examination. Expression of iNOS significantly increased during REM sleep in AD patients compared to MCI patients and controls. There were no significant differences in PER1 expression between the three groups, but an increase in PER1 expression during the wake stage was observed for all participants. Increased expression of iNOS during REM sleep of patients with AD might be a compensation mechanism for maintaining REM sleep. However, the precise role of nocturnal expression of iNOS in patients with AD requires further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1140-1143
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
Volume17
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2010

Fingerprint

Sleep Stages
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
REM Sleep
Sleep
Genes
Circadian Rhythm
Dementia
Behavioral Symptoms
Cognitive Dysfunction
Polysomnography
Eye Movements
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Alzheimer Disease
Nitric Oxide
Leukocytes
Psychology
Gene Expression
Messenger RNA

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Circadian rhythm
  • iNOS
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • REM sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and period 1 (PER1) clock gene products in different sleep stages of patients with cognitive impairment",
abstract = "Circadian and sleep disturbances are common behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia; circadian rhythm-related molecules may be altered in dementia patients. This study investigated the expression of the period 1 clock gene product (PER1), which is involved in circadian rhythms, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thought to generate nitric oxide, important in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. Specifically, we investigated the difference in expression of these two genes between patients with cognitive impairment and controls. We studied iNOS and PER1 mRNA expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral leukocytes during REM sleep, non-REM sleep and wake stages in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 5), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 8) and controls (n = 9) during polysomnography examination. Expression of iNOS significantly increased during REM sleep in AD patients compared to MCI patients and controls. There were no significant differences in PER1 expression between the three groups, but an increase in PER1 expression during the wake stage was observed for all participants. Increased expression of iNOS during REM sleep of patients with AD might be a compensation mechanism for maintaining REM sleep. However, the precise role of nocturnal expression of iNOS in patients with AD requires further investigation.",
keywords = "Alzheimer's disease, Circadian rhythm, iNOS, Mild cognitive impairment, REM sleep",
author = "Tseng, {Ing Jy} and Liu, {Hsing Cheng} and Yuan, {Rey Yue} and Sheu, {Jau Jiuan} and Yu, {Jia Ming} and Hu, {Chaur Jong}",
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T1 - Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and period 1 (PER1) clock gene products in different sleep stages of patients with cognitive impairment

AU - Tseng, Ing Jy

AU - Liu, Hsing Cheng

AU - Yuan, Rey Yue

AU - Sheu, Jau Jiuan

AU - Yu, Jia Ming

AU - Hu, Chaur Jong

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N2 - Circadian and sleep disturbances are common behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia; circadian rhythm-related molecules may be altered in dementia patients. This study investigated the expression of the period 1 clock gene product (PER1), which is involved in circadian rhythms, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thought to generate nitric oxide, important in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. Specifically, we investigated the difference in expression of these two genes between patients with cognitive impairment and controls. We studied iNOS and PER1 mRNA expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral leukocytes during REM sleep, non-REM sleep and wake stages in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 5), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 8) and controls (n = 9) during polysomnography examination. Expression of iNOS significantly increased during REM sleep in AD patients compared to MCI patients and controls. There were no significant differences in PER1 expression between the three groups, but an increase in PER1 expression during the wake stage was observed for all participants. Increased expression of iNOS during REM sleep of patients with AD might be a compensation mechanism for maintaining REM sleep. However, the precise role of nocturnal expression of iNOS in patients with AD requires further investigation.

AB - Circadian and sleep disturbances are common behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia; circadian rhythm-related molecules may be altered in dementia patients. This study investigated the expression of the period 1 clock gene product (PER1), which is involved in circadian rhythms, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thought to generate nitric oxide, important in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. Specifically, we investigated the difference in expression of these two genes between patients with cognitive impairment and controls. We studied iNOS and PER1 mRNA expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral leukocytes during REM sleep, non-REM sleep and wake stages in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 5), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 8) and controls (n = 9) during polysomnography examination. Expression of iNOS significantly increased during REM sleep in AD patients compared to MCI patients and controls. There were no significant differences in PER1 expression between the three groups, but an increase in PER1 expression during the wake stage was observed for all participants. Increased expression of iNOS during REM sleep of patients with AD might be a compensation mechanism for maintaining REM sleep. However, the precise role of nocturnal expression of iNOS in patients with AD requires further investigation.

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