Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection

Keertan Dheda, Jung Su Chang, Ronan A M Breen, Jamanda A. Haddock, Marc C. Lipman, Louise U. Kim, Jim F. Huggett, Margaret A. Johnson, Graham A W Rook, Alimuddin Zumla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Correcting the Th2 shift in HIV/AIDS represents a potential intervention strategy. However data on interleukin (IL)-4 expression in HIV or AIDS are uninterpretable because of failure to distinguish between IL-4 and its splice variant and natural antagonist, IL-4δ2. Objective: To determine Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ], IL-4δ2 and Th2 (IL-4) expression in whole blood and lung lavage from healthy volunteers and in HIV or HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. Design: Cross-sectional with prospective cohort. Methods: Expression of IL-4δ2, IL-4 and IFN-γ were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, using unstimulated cells from whole blood and lung lavage, in 20 HIV-TB (pulmonary) co-infected patients, 20 matched HIV-positive controls and 20 HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Results were correlated with plasma viral load, CD4 cell counts, radiological scores and response to anti-TB treatment. Results: Compared to HIV negative donors, stable HIV-positive donors did not have increased levels of mRNA encoding IL-4, IL-4δ2 or IFN-γ in blood or lavage. By contrast, the HIV-TB co-infected donors had increased IL-4 and IFN-γ in both compartments. However the antagonist, IL-4δ2 was increased only in lavage. Consequently the dominant form was IL-4δ2 in lavage, but IL-4 itself in blood. The lung IL-4/IFN-γ ratio correlated with radiological disease extent. With anti-TB treatment, IL-4 levels did not change whilst IL-482 levels increased significantly. Conclusions: IL-4 and its natural antagonist, IL-482 and are not upregulated in the absence of opportunistic infection. However in HIV-TB co-infection both cytokines increase in lung, but only IL-4 in the periphery. Further studies are required to determine if IL-4 facilitates systemic HIV progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1601-1606
Number of pages6
JournalAIDS
Volume19
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Oct 14 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Interleukins
Coinfection
Interleukin-4
Tuberculosis
HIV
Cytokines
Interferons
Therapeutic Irrigation
Tissue Donors
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Healthy Volunteers
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lung
Opportunistic Infections
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Viral Load
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Blood Cells

Keywords

  • HIV
  • IL-4
  • IL-4δ2
  • Th1/Th2 cells
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

Dheda, K., Chang, J. S., Breen, R. A. M., Haddock, J. A., Lipman, M. C., Kim, L. U., ... Zumla, A. (2005). Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection. AIDS, 19(15), 1601-1606.

Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection. / Dheda, Keertan; Chang, Jung Su; Breen, Ronan A M; Haddock, Jamanda A.; Lipman, Marc C.; Kim, Louise U.; Huggett, Jim F.; Johnson, Margaret A.; Rook, Graham A W; Zumla, Alimuddin.

In: AIDS, Vol. 19, No. 15, 14.10.2005, p. 1601-1606.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dheda, K, Chang, JS, Breen, RAM, Haddock, JA, Lipman, MC, Kim, LU, Huggett, JF, Johnson, MA, Rook, GAW & Zumla, A 2005, 'Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection', AIDS, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 1601-1606.
Dheda K, Chang JS, Breen RAM, Haddock JA, Lipman MC, Kim LU et al. Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection. AIDS. 2005 Oct 14;19(15):1601-1606.
Dheda, Keertan ; Chang, Jung Su ; Breen, Ronan A M ; Haddock, Jamanda A. ; Lipman, Marc C. ; Kim, Louise U. ; Huggett, Jim F. ; Johnson, Margaret A. ; Rook, Graham A W ; Zumla, Alimuddin. / Expression of a novel cytokine, IL-4delta2, in HIV and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection. In: AIDS. 2005 ; Vol. 19, No. 15. pp. 1601-1606.
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AU - Chang, Jung Su

AU - Breen, Ronan A M

AU - Haddock, Jamanda A.

AU - Lipman, Marc C.

AU - Kim, Louise U.

AU - Huggett, Jim F.

AU - Johnson, Margaret A.

AU - Rook, Graham A W

AU - Zumla, Alimuddin

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N2 - Background: Correcting the Th2 shift in HIV/AIDS represents a potential intervention strategy. However data on interleukin (IL)-4 expression in HIV or AIDS are uninterpretable because of failure to distinguish between IL-4 and its splice variant and natural antagonist, IL-4δ2. Objective: To determine Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ], IL-4δ2 and Th2 (IL-4) expression in whole blood and lung lavage from healthy volunteers and in HIV or HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. Design: Cross-sectional with prospective cohort. Methods: Expression of IL-4δ2, IL-4 and IFN-γ were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, using unstimulated cells from whole blood and lung lavage, in 20 HIV-TB (pulmonary) co-infected patients, 20 matched HIV-positive controls and 20 HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Results were correlated with plasma viral load, CD4 cell counts, radiological scores and response to anti-TB treatment. Results: Compared to HIV negative donors, stable HIV-positive donors did not have increased levels of mRNA encoding IL-4, IL-4δ2 or IFN-γ in blood or lavage. By contrast, the HIV-TB co-infected donors had increased IL-4 and IFN-γ in both compartments. However the antagonist, IL-4δ2 was increased only in lavage. Consequently the dominant form was IL-4δ2 in lavage, but IL-4 itself in blood. The lung IL-4/IFN-γ ratio correlated with radiological disease extent. With anti-TB treatment, IL-4 levels did not change whilst IL-482 levels increased significantly. Conclusions: IL-4 and its natural antagonist, IL-482 and are not upregulated in the absence of opportunistic infection. However in HIV-TB co-infection both cytokines increase in lung, but only IL-4 in the periphery. Further studies are required to determine if IL-4 facilitates systemic HIV progression.

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