Expandable Scaffold Improves Integration of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage: An in Vivo Study in a Rabbit Model

Chen Chie Wang, K.-C. Yang, Keng Hui Lin, Yen Liang Liu, Ya Ting Yang, Tzong Fu Kuo, Ing Ho Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the major limitations of tissue-engineered cartilage is poor integration of chondrocytes and scaffold structures with recipient tissue. To overcome this limitation, an expandable scaffold with a honeycomb-like structure has been developed using microfluidic technology. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this expandable gelatin scaffold seeded with rabbit chondrocytes in vivo. The chondrocyte/scaffold constructs were implanted into regions of surgically introduced cylindrical osteochondral defects in rabbit femoral condyles. At 2, 4, and 6 months postsurgery, the implanted constructs were evaluated by gross and histological examinations. As expected, the osteochondral defects, which were untreated or transplanted with blank scaffolds, showed no signs of repair, whereas the defects transplanted with chondrocyte/scaffold constructs showed significant cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, the expandable scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes had more regenerated cartilage tissue and better integration with the recipient tissue than autologous chondrocyte implantation. Biomechanical tests revealed that the chondrocyte/scaffold group had the highest compressive strength among all groups at all three time points and endured a similar compressive force to normal cartilage after 6 months of implantation. Histological examinations revealed that the chondrocytes were distributed uniformly within the scaffolds, maintained a normal phenotype, and secreted functional components of the extracellular matrix. Histomorphometric assessment showed a remarkable total interface of up to 87% integration of the expandable scaffolds with the host tissue at 6 months postoperation. In conclusion, the expandable scaffolds improved chondrocyte/scaffold construct integration with the host tissue and were beneficial for cartilage repair. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)873-884
Number of pages12
JournalTissue Engineering - Part A
Volume22
Issue number11-12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Cartilage
Chondrocytes
Scaffolds
Tissue
Rabbits
Defects
Compressive Strength
Repair
Microfluidics
Gelatin
Thigh
Extracellular Matrix
Regeneration
Compressive strength
Technology
Phenotype
Bone and Bones

Keywords

  • Body fluids
  • Cartilage
  • Compressive strength
  • Defects
  • Integration
  • Repair
  • Tissue
  • Autologous chondrocyte implantations
  • Cartilage regeneration
  • Extracellular matrices
  • Histological examination
  • Honeycomblike structures
  • Microfluidic technologies
  • Osteochondral defects
  • Tissue engineered cartilage
  • Scaffolds (biology)

Cite this

Expandable Scaffold Improves Integration of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage: An in Vivo Study in a Rabbit Model. / Wang, Chen Chie; Yang, K.-C.; Lin, Keng Hui; Liu, Yen Liang; Yang, Ya Ting; Kuo, Tzong Fu; Chen, Ing Ho.

In: Tissue Engineering - Part A, Vol. 22, No. 11-12, 2016, p. 873-884.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, Chen Chie ; Yang, K.-C. ; Lin, Keng Hui ; Liu, Yen Liang ; Yang, Ya Ting ; Kuo, Tzong Fu ; Chen, Ing Ho. / Expandable Scaffold Improves Integration of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage: An in Vivo Study in a Rabbit Model. In: Tissue Engineering - Part A. 2016 ; Vol. 22, No. 11-12. pp. 873-884.
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title = "Expandable Scaffold Improves Integration of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage: An in Vivo Study in a Rabbit Model",
abstract = "One of the major limitations of tissue-engineered cartilage is poor integration of chondrocytes and scaffold structures with recipient tissue. To overcome this limitation, an expandable scaffold with a honeycomb-like structure has been developed using microfluidic technology. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this expandable gelatin scaffold seeded with rabbit chondrocytes in vivo. The chondrocyte/scaffold constructs were implanted into regions of surgically introduced cylindrical osteochondral defects in rabbit femoral condyles. At 2, 4, and 6 months postsurgery, the implanted constructs were evaluated by gross and histological examinations. As expected, the osteochondral defects, which were untreated or transplanted with blank scaffolds, showed no signs of repair, whereas the defects transplanted with chondrocyte/scaffold constructs showed significant cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, the expandable scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes had more regenerated cartilage tissue and better integration with the recipient tissue than autologous chondrocyte implantation. Biomechanical tests revealed that the chondrocyte/scaffold group had the highest compressive strength among all groups at all three time points and endured a similar compressive force to normal cartilage after 6 months of implantation. Histological examinations revealed that the chondrocytes were distributed uniformly within the scaffolds, maintained a normal phenotype, and secreted functional components of the extracellular matrix. Histomorphometric assessment showed a remarkable total interface of up to 87{\%} integration of the expandable scaffolds with the host tissue at 6 months postoperation. In conclusion, the expandable scaffolds improved chondrocyte/scaffold construct integration with the host tissue and were beneficial for cartilage repair. {\circledC} Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.",
keywords = "Body fluids, Cartilage, Compressive strength, Defects, Integration, Repair, Tissue, Autologous chondrocyte implantations, Cartilage regeneration, Extracellular matrices, Histological examination, Honeycomblike structures, Microfluidic technologies, Osteochondral defects, Tissue engineered cartilage, Scaffolds (biology)",
author = "Wang, {Chen Chie} and K.-C. Yang and Lin, {Keng Hui} and Liu, {Yen Liang} and Yang, {Ya Ting} and Kuo, {Tzong Fu} and Chen, {Ing Ho}",
note = "Export Date: 24 August 2016 通訊地址: Kuo, T.-F.; Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taiwan; 電子郵件: tzongfu@ntu.edu.tw 參考文獻: Harris, J.D., Siston, R.A., Pan, X., Flanigan, D.C., Autologous chondrocyte implantation: A systematic review (2010) J Bone Joint Surg Am, 92, p. 2220; Roberts, S., Hollander, A.P., Caterson, B., Menage, J., Richardson, J.B., Matrix turnover in human cartilage repair tissue in autologous chondrocyte implantation (2001) Arthritis Rheum, 44, p. 2586; Brittberg, M., Cell carriers as the next generation of cell therapy for cartilage repair: A review of the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure (2010) Am J Sports Med, 38, p. 1259; Gille, J., Behrens, P., Volpi, P., De Girolamo, L., Reiss, E., Zoch, W., Outcome of Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) in cartilage knee surgery: Data of the AMIC Registry (2013) Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 133, p. 87; Demoor, M., Ollitrault, D., Gomez-Leduc, T., Bouyoucef, M., Hervieu, M., Fabre, H., Cartilage tissue engineering: Molecular control of chondrocyte differentiation for proper cartilage matrix reconstruction (2014) Biochim Biophys Acta, 1840, p. 2414; Yang, K.C., Wu, C.C., Chen, W.Y., Sumi, S., Huang, T.L., L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes Process Biochem, , Epub ahead of print; Benya, P.D., Shaffer, J.D., Dedifferentiated chondrocytes reexpress the differentiated collagen phenotype when cultured in agarose gels (1982) Cell, 30, p. 215; Fan, F.Y., Chiu, C.C., Tseng, C.L., Lee, H.S., Pan, Y.N., Yang, K.C., Glycosaminoglycan/chitosan hydrogel for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation: An in vitro study (2014) J Med Biol Eng, 34, p. 211; Kretlow, J.D., Klouda, L., Mikos, A.G., Injectable matrices and scaffolds for drug delivery in tissue engineering (2007) Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 59, p. 263; Huang, N.F., Li, S., Regulation of the matrix microenvironment for stem cell engineering and regenerative medicine (2011) Ann Biomed Eng, 39, p. 1201; Badylak, S.F., Xenogeneic extracellular matrix as a scaffold for tissue reconstruction (2004) Transpl Immunol, 12, p. 367; Hutmacher, D.W., Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage (2000) Biomaterials, 21, p. 2529; Kharkar, P.M., Kiick, K.L., Kloxin, A.M., Designing degradable hydrogels for orthogonal control of cell microenvironments (2013) Chem Soc Rev, 42, p. 7335; Liu, X., Ma, P.X., Polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (2004) Ann Biomed Eng, 32, p. 477; Temenoff, J.S., Mikos, A.G., Review: Tissue engineering for regeneration of articular cartilage (2000) Biomaterials, 21, p. 431; Chang, C.H., Kuo, T.F., Lin, F.H., Wang, J.H., Hsu, Y.M., Huang, H.T., Tissue engineering-based cartilage repair with mesenchymal stem cells in a porcine model (2011) J Orthop Res, 29, p. 1874; Trattnig, S., Ba-Ssalamah, A., Pinker, K., Plank, C., Vecsei, V., Marlovits, S., Matrix-based autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage repair: Noninvasive monitoring by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (2005) Magn Reson Imaging, 23, p. 779; Wang, C.C., Yang, K.C., Lin, K.H., Wu, C.C., Liu, Y.L., Lin, F.H., A biomimetic honeycomb-like scaffold prepared by flow-focusing technology for cartilage regeneration (2014) Biotechnol Bioeng, 111, p. 2338; Chiang, T.S., Yang, K.C., Zheng, S.K., Chiou, L.L., Hsu, W.M., Lin, F.H., The prediction of drug metabolism using scaffold-mediated enhancement of the induced cytochrome P450 activities in fibroblasts by hepatic transcriptional regulators (2012) Biomaterials, 33, p. 5187; Frisbie, D.D., Cross, M.W., McIlwraith, C.W., A comparative study of articular cartilage thickness in the stifle of animal species used in human pre-clinical studies compared to articular cartilage thickness in the human knee (2006) Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol, 19, p. 142; Wang, L.S., Du, C., Toh, W.S., Wan, A.C., Gao, S.J., Kurisawa, M., Modulation of chondrocyte functions and stiffness-dependent cartilage repair using an injectable enzymatically crosslinked hydrogel with tunable mechanical properties (2014) Biomaterials, 35, p. 2207; Yang, K.C., Chen, H.T., Wu, C.C., Lian, Y.J., Chen, L.L., Sumi, S., L-Glutamine regulates the expression of matrix proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and catabolic enzymes in IL-1b-stimulated human chondrocytes (2016) Process Biochem, 51, p. 414; Brittberg, M., Lindahl, A., Nilsson, A., Ohlsson, C., Isaksson, O., Peterson, L., Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation (1994) N Engl J Med, 331, p. 889; O'Driscoll, S.W., Keeley, F.W., Salter, R.B., Durability of regenerated articular cartilage produced by free autogenous periosteal grafts in major full-thickness defects in joint surfaces under the influence of continuous passive motion. A follow-up report at one year (1988) J Bone Joint Surg Am, 70, p. 595; Shao, X., Goh, J.C., Hutmacher, D.W., Lee, E.H., Zigang, G., Repair of large articular osteochondral defects using hybrid scaffolds and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model (2006) Tissue Eng, 12, p. 1539; Hacker, S.A., Healey, R.M., Yoshioka, M., Coutts, R.D., A methodology for the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage histomorphometry (1997) Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 5, p. 343; Pabbruwe, M.B., Esfandiari, E., Kafienah, W., Tarlton, J.F., Hollander, A.P., Induction of cartilage integration by a chondrocyte/collagen-scaffold implant (2009) Biomaterials, 30, p. 4277; Peretti, G.M., Zaporojan, V., Spangenberg, K.M., Randolph, M.A., Fellers, J., Bonassar, L.J., Cell-based bonding of articular cartilage: An extended study (2003) J Biomed Mater Res, 64 A, p. 517; Peretti, G.M., Randolph, M.A., Caruso, E.M., Rossetti, F., Zaleske, D.J., Bonding of cartilage matrices with cultured chondrocytes: An experimental model (1998) J Orthop Res, 16, p. 89; Tanaka, T., Komaki, H., Chazono, M., Fujii, K., Use of a biphasic graft constructed with chondrocytes overlying a beta-tricalcium phosphate block in the treatment of rabbit osteochondral defects (2005) Tissue Eng, 11, p. 331; Zeifang, F., Oberle, D., Nierhoff, C., Richter, W., Moradi, B., Schmitt, H., Autologous chondrocyte implantation using the original periosteum-cover technique versus matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation: A randomized clinical trial (2010) Am J Sports Med, 38, p. 924; Wang, W., Tam, M.D., Spain, J., Quintini, C., Gelfoamassisted amplatzer vascular plug technique for rapid occlusion in proximal splenic artery embolization (2013) AJR Am J Roentgenol, 200, p. 677; Sanno, K., Hatanaka, N., Yamagishi, T., Nakazawa, I., Hirano, Y., Hosaka, K., Selective gelfoam embolization of primary racemose haemangioma of the bronchial artery (2009) Respirology, 14, p. 609; Lee, J.W., Cuddihy, M.J., Kotov, N.A., Threedimensional cell culture matrices: State of the art (2008) Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 14, p. 61; Khan, I.M., Gilbert, S.J., Singhrao, S.K., Duance, V.C., Archer, C.W., Cartilage integration: Evaluation of the reasons for failure of integration during cartilage repair. A review (2008) Eur Cell Mater, 16, p. 26; Heir, S., Ar{\o}en, A., L{\o}ken, S., Sulheim, S., Engebretsen, L., Reinholt, F.P., Intraarticular location predicts cartilage filling and subchondral bone changes in a chondral defect (2010) Acta Orthop, 81, p. 619",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1089/ten.tea.2015.0510",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "873--884",
journal = "Tissue Engineering - Part A.",
issn = "1937-3341",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "11-12",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Expandable Scaffold Improves Integration of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage: An in Vivo Study in a Rabbit Model

AU - Wang, Chen Chie

AU - Yang, K.-C.

AU - Lin, Keng Hui

AU - Liu, Yen Liang

AU - Yang, Ya Ting

AU - Kuo, Tzong Fu

AU - Chen, Ing Ho

N1 - Export Date: 24 August 2016 通訊地址: Kuo, T.-F.; Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taiwan; 電子郵件: tzongfu@ntu.edu.tw 參考文獻: Harris, J.D., Siston, R.A., Pan, X., Flanigan, D.C., Autologous chondrocyte implantation: A systematic review (2010) J Bone Joint Surg Am, 92, p. 2220; Roberts, S., Hollander, A.P., Caterson, B., Menage, J., Richardson, J.B., Matrix turnover in human cartilage repair tissue in autologous chondrocyte implantation (2001) Arthritis Rheum, 44, p. 2586; Brittberg, M., Cell carriers as the next generation of cell therapy for cartilage repair: A review of the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure (2010) Am J Sports Med, 38, p. 1259; Gille, J., Behrens, P., Volpi, P., De Girolamo, L., Reiss, E., Zoch, W., Outcome of Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) in cartilage knee surgery: Data of the AMIC Registry (2013) Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 133, p. 87; Demoor, M., Ollitrault, D., Gomez-Leduc, T., Bouyoucef, M., Hervieu, M., Fabre, H., Cartilage tissue engineering: Molecular control of chondrocyte differentiation for proper cartilage matrix reconstruction (2014) Biochim Biophys Acta, 1840, p. 2414; Yang, K.C., Wu, C.C., Chen, W.Y., Sumi, S., Huang, T.L., L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes Process Biochem, , Epub ahead of print; Benya, P.D., Shaffer, J.D., Dedifferentiated chondrocytes reexpress the differentiated collagen phenotype when cultured in agarose gels (1982) Cell, 30, p. 215; Fan, F.Y., Chiu, C.C., Tseng, C.L., Lee, H.S., Pan, Y.N., Yang, K.C., Glycosaminoglycan/chitosan hydrogel for matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation: An in vitro study (2014) J Med Biol Eng, 34, p. 211; Kretlow, J.D., Klouda, L., Mikos, A.G., Injectable matrices and scaffolds for drug delivery in tissue engineering (2007) Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 59, p. 263; Huang, N.F., Li, S., Regulation of the matrix microenvironment for stem cell engineering and regenerative medicine (2011) Ann Biomed Eng, 39, p. 1201; Badylak, S.F., Xenogeneic extracellular matrix as a scaffold for tissue reconstruction (2004) Transpl Immunol, 12, p. 367; Hutmacher, D.W., Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage (2000) Biomaterials, 21, p. 2529; Kharkar, P.M., Kiick, K.L., Kloxin, A.M., Designing degradable hydrogels for orthogonal control of cell microenvironments (2013) Chem Soc Rev, 42, p. 7335; Liu, X., Ma, P.X., Polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (2004) Ann Biomed Eng, 32, p. 477; Temenoff, J.S., Mikos, A.G., Review: Tissue engineering for regeneration of articular cartilage (2000) Biomaterials, 21, p. 431; Chang, C.H., Kuo, T.F., Lin, F.H., Wang, J.H., Hsu, Y.M., Huang, H.T., Tissue engineering-based cartilage repair with mesenchymal stem cells in a porcine model (2011) J Orthop Res, 29, p. 1874; Trattnig, S., Ba-Ssalamah, A., Pinker, K., Plank, C., Vecsei, V., Marlovits, S., Matrix-based autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage repair: Noninvasive monitoring by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (2005) Magn Reson Imaging, 23, p. 779; Wang, C.C., Yang, K.C., Lin, K.H., Wu, C.C., Liu, Y.L., Lin, F.H., A biomimetic honeycomb-like scaffold prepared by flow-focusing technology for cartilage regeneration (2014) Biotechnol Bioeng, 111, p. 2338; Chiang, T.S., Yang, K.C., Zheng, S.K., Chiou, L.L., Hsu, W.M., Lin, F.H., The prediction of drug metabolism using scaffold-mediated enhancement of the induced cytochrome P450 activities in fibroblasts by hepatic transcriptional regulators (2012) Biomaterials, 33, p. 5187; Frisbie, D.D., Cross, M.W., McIlwraith, C.W., A comparative study of articular cartilage thickness in the stifle of animal species used in human pre-clinical studies compared to articular cartilage thickness in the human knee (2006) Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol, 19, p. 142; Wang, L.S., Du, C., Toh, W.S., Wan, A.C., Gao, S.J., Kurisawa, M., Modulation of chondrocyte functions and stiffness-dependent cartilage repair using an injectable enzymatically crosslinked hydrogel with tunable mechanical properties (2014) Biomaterials, 35, p. 2207; Yang, K.C., Chen, H.T., Wu, C.C., Lian, Y.J., Chen, L.L., Sumi, S., L-Glutamine regulates the expression of matrix proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and catabolic enzymes in IL-1b-stimulated human chondrocytes (2016) Process Biochem, 51, p. 414; Brittberg, M., Lindahl, A., Nilsson, A., Ohlsson, C., Isaksson, O., Peterson, L., Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation (1994) N Engl J Med, 331, p. 889; O'Driscoll, S.W., Keeley, F.W., Salter, R.B., Durability of regenerated articular cartilage produced by free autogenous periosteal grafts in major full-thickness defects in joint surfaces under the influence of continuous passive motion. A follow-up report at one year (1988) J Bone Joint Surg Am, 70, p. 595; Shao, X., Goh, J.C., Hutmacher, D.W., Lee, E.H., Zigang, G., Repair of large articular osteochondral defects using hybrid scaffolds and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model (2006) Tissue Eng, 12, p. 1539; Hacker, S.A., Healey, R.M., Yoshioka, M., Coutts, R.D., A methodology for the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage histomorphometry (1997) Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 5, p. 343; Pabbruwe, M.B., Esfandiari, E., Kafienah, W., Tarlton, J.F., Hollander, A.P., Induction of cartilage integration by a chondrocyte/collagen-scaffold implant (2009) Biomaterials, 30, p. 4277; Peretti, G.M., Zaporojan, V., Spangenberg, K.M., Randolph, M.A., Fellers, J., Bonassar, L.J., Cell-based bonding of articular cartilage: An extended study (2003) J Biomed Mater Res, 64 A, p. 517; Peretti, G.M., Randolph, M.A., Caruso, E.M., Rossetti, F., Zaleske, D.J., Bonding of cartilage matrices with cultured chondrocytes: An experimental model (1998) J Orthop Res, 16, p. 89; Tanaka, T., Komaki, H., Chazono, M., Fujii, K., Use of a biphasic graft constructed with chondrocytes overlying a beta-tricalcium phosphate block in the treatment of rabbit osteochondral defects (2005) Tissue Eng, 11, p. 331; Zeifang, F., Oberle, D., Nierhoff, C., Richter, W., Moradi, B., Schmitt, H., Autologous chondrocyte implantation using the original periosteum-cover technique versus matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation: A randomized clinical trial (2010) Am J Sports Med, 38, p. 924; Wang, W., Tam, M.D., Spain, J., Quintini, C., Gelfoamassisted amplatzer vascular plug technique for rapid occlusion in proximal splenic artery embolization (2013) AJR Am J Roentgenol, 200, p. 677; Sanno, K., Hatanaka, N., Yamagishi, T., Nakazawa, I., Hirano, Y., Hosaka, K., Selective gelfoam embolization of primary racemose haemangioma of the bronchial artery (2009) Respirology, 14, p. 609; Lee, J.W., Cuddihy, M.J., Kotov, N.A., Threedimensional cell culture matrices: State of the art (2008) Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 14, p. 61; Khan, I.M., Gilbert, S.J., Singhrao, S.K., Duance, V.C., Archer, C.W., Cartilage integration: Evaluation of the reasons for failure of integration during cartilage repair. A review (2008) Eur Cell Mater, 16, p. 26; Heir, S., Arøen, A., Løken, S., Sulheim, S., Engebretsen, L., Reinholt, F.P., Intraarticular location predicts cartilage filling and subchondral bone changes in a chondral defect (2010) Acta Orthop, 81, p. 619

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - One of the major limitations of tissue-engineered cartilage is poor integration of chondrocytes and scaffold structures with recipient tissue. To overcome this limitation, an expandable scaffold with a honeycomb-like structure has been developed using microfluidic technology. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this expandable gelatin scaffold seeded with rabbit chondrocytes in vivo. The chondrocyte/scaffold constructs were implanted into regions of surgically introduced cylindrical osteochondral defects in rabbit femoral condyles. At 2, 4, and 6 months postsurgery, the implanted constructs were evaluated by gross and histological examinations. As expected, the osteochondral defects, which were untreated or transplanted with blank scaffolds, showed no signs of repair, whereas the defects transplanted with chondrocyte/scaffold constructs showed significant cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, the expandable scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes had more regenerated cartilage tissue and better integration with the recipient tissue than autologous chondrocyte implantation. Biomechanical tests revealed that the chondrocyte/scaffold group had the highest compressive strength among all groups at all three time points and endured a similar compressive force to normal cartilage after 6 months of implantation. Histological examinations revealed that the chondrocytes were distributed uniformly within the scaffolds, maintained a normal phenotype, and secreted functional components of the extracellular matrix. Histomorphometric assessment showed a remarkable total interface of up to 87% integration of the expandable scaffolds with the host tissue at 6 months postoperation. In conclusion, the expandable scaffolds improved chondrocyte/scaffold construct integration with the host tissue and were beneficial for cartilage repair. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.

AB - One of the major limitations of tissue-engineered cartilage is poor integration of chondrocytes and scaffold structures with recipient tissue. To overcome this limitation, an expandable scaffold with a honeycomb-like structure has been developed using microfluidic technology. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this expandable gelatin scaffold seeded with rabbit chondrocytes in vivo. The chondrocyte/scaffold constructs were implanted into regions of surgically introduced cylindrical osteochondral defects in rabbit femoral condyles. At 2, 4, and 6 months postsurgery, the implanted constructs were evaluated by gross and histological examinations. As expected, the osteochondral defects, which were untreated or transplanted with blank scaffolds, showed no signs of repair, whereas the defects transplanted with chondrocyte/scaffold constructs showed significant cartilage regeneration. Furthermore, the expandable scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes had more regenerated cartilage tissue and better integration with the recipient tissue than autologous chondrocyte implantation. Biomechanical tests revealed that the chondrocyte/scaffold group had the highest compressive strength among all groups at all three time points and endured a similar compressive force to normal cartilage after 6 months of implantation. Histological examinations revealed that the chondrocytes were distributed uniformly within the scaffolds, maintained a normal phenotype, and secreted functional components of the extracellular matrix. Histomorphometric assessment showed a remarkable total interface of up to 87% integration of the expandable scaffolds with the host tissue at 6 months postoperation. In conclusion, the expandable scaffolds improved chondrocyte/scaffold construct integration with the host tissue and were beneficial for cartilage repair. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.

KW - Body fluids

KW - Cartilage

KW - Compressive strength

KW - Defects

KW - Integration

KW - Repair

KW - Tissue

KW - Autologous chondrocyte implantations

KW - Cartilage regeneration

KW - Extracellular matrices

KW - Histological examination

KW - Honeycomblike structures

KW - Microfluidic technologies

KW - Osteochondral defects

KW - Tissue engineered cartilage

KW - Scaffolds (biology)

U2 - 10.1089/ten.tea.2015.0510

DO - 10.1089/ten.tea.2015.0510

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 873

EP - 884

JO - Tissue Engineering - Part A.

JF - Tissue Engineering - Part A.

SN - 1937-3341

IS - 11-12

ER -