Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

Ming Tsang Wu, Li Hung Lee, Chi Kung Ho, Su Chu Wu, Long Yau Lin, Bi Hua Cheng, Chia Ling Liu, Chun Yuh Yang, Hsiu Ting Tsai, Trong Neng Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during both periods, we found a 2.05-fold greater risk (95% CI=0.86-4.86) for those who used exhaust fans during only one of the two age spans and a 3.46-fold greater risk in those who had not used an exhaust fan for either period (95% CI=1.08-11.10) (trend test, P=0.02). While exposure to cooking oil fumes may cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, women can be protected from this risk by always cooking in kitchens equipped with fume extractors and by keeping them on while cooking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-32
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume94
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Fumes
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Cooking
Environmental Exposure
Oils
oil
Kitchens
confidence interval
Confidence Intervals
Papanicolaou Test
Ventilation exhausts
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Fans
PAH
fold
Public Health Nurses
woman
fume
exposure
Biopsy

Keywords

  • Aromatic amines
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm
  • Cooking oil fumes
  • Fume extractor
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Wu, M. T., Lee, L. H., Ho, C. K., Wu, S. C., Lin, L. Y., Cheng, B. H., ... Wu, T. N. (2004). Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. Environmental Research, 94(1), 25-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00118-X

Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. / Wu, Ming Tsang; Lee, Li Hung; Ho, Chi Kung; Wu, Su Chu; Lin, Long Yau; Cheng, Bi Hua; Liu, Chia Ling; Yang, Chun Yuh; Tsai, Hsiu Ting; Wu, Trong Neng.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 94, No. 1, 01.2004, p. 25-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wu, MT, Lee, LH, Ho, CK, Wu, SC, Lin, LY, Cheng, BH, Liu, CL, Yang, CY, Tsai, HT & Wu, TN 2004, 'Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm', Environmental Research, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 25-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00118-X
Wu, Ming Tsang ; Lee, Li Hung ; Ho, Chi Kung ; Wu, Su Chu ; Lin, Long Yau ; Cheng, Bi Hua ; Liu, Chia Ling ; Yang, Chun Yuh ; Tsai, Hsiu Ting ; Wu, Trong Neng. / Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. In: Environmental Research. 2004 ; Vol. 94, No. 1. pp. 25-32.
@article{b087b7ff890b488392d262200682559f,
title = "Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm",
abstract = "The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95{\%} confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95{\%} CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during both periods, we found a 2.05-fold greater risk (95{\%} CI=0.86-4.86) for those who used exhaust fans during only one of the two age spans and a 3.46-fold greater risk in those who had not used an exhaust fan for either period (95{\%} CI=1.08-11.10) (trend test, P=0.02). While exposure to cooking oil fumes may cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, women can be protected from this risk by always cooking in kitchens equipped with fume extractors and by keeping them on while cooking.",
keywords = "Aromatic amines, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, Cooking oil fumes, Fume extractor, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)",
author = "Wu, {Ming Tsang} and Lee, {Li Hung} and Ho, {Chi Kung} and Wu, {Su Chu} and Lin, {Long Yau} and Cheng, {Bi Hua} and Liu, {Chia Ling} and Yang, {Chun Yuh} and Tsai, {Hsiu Ting} and Wu, {Trong Neng}",
year = "2004",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00118-X",
language = "English",
volume = "94",
pages = "25--32",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

AU - Wu, Ming Tsang

AU - Lee, Li Hung

AU - Ho, Chi Kung

AU - Wu, Su Chu

AU - Lin, Long Yau

AU - Cheng, Bi Hua

AU - Liu, Chia Ling

AU - Yang, Chun Yuh

AU - Tsai, Hsiu Ting

AU - Wu, Trong Neng

PY - 2004/1

Y1 - 2004/1

N2 - The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during both periods, we found a 2.05-fold greater risk (95% CI=0.86-4.86) for those who used exhaust fans during only one of the two age spans and a 3.46-fold greater risk in those who had not used an exhaust fan for either period (95% CI=1.08-11.10) (trend test, P=0.02). While exposure to cooking oil fumes may cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, women can be protected from this risk by always cooking in kitchens equipped with fume extractors and by keeping them on while cooking.

AB - The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during both periods, we found a 2.05-fold greater risk (95% CI=0.86-4.86) for those who used exhaust fans during only one of the two age spans and a 3.46-fold greater risk in those who had not used an exhaust fan for either period (95% CI=1.08-11.10) (trend test, P=0.02). While exposure to cooking oil fumes may cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, women can be protected from this risk by always cooking in kitchens equipped with fume extractors and by keeping them on while cooking.

KW - Aromatic amines

KW - Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

KW - Cooking oil fumes

KW - Fume extractor

KW - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=10744226698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=10744226698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00118-X

DO - 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00118-X

M3 - Article

C2 - 14643283

AN - SCOPUS:10744226698

VL - 94

SP - 25

EP - 32

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

IS - 1

ER -