Enterovirus 71 proteins 2A and 3D antagonize the antiviral activity of gamma interferon via signaling attenuation

Li Chiu Wang, Su O. Chen, Shih Ping Chang, Yi Ping Lee, Chun Keung Yu, Chia Ling Chen, Po Chun Tseng, Chia Yuan Hsieh, Shun Hua Chen, Chiou Feng Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes severe mortality involving multiple possible mechanisms, including cytokine storm, brain stem encephalitis, and fulminant pulmonary edema. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) may confer anti-EV71 activity; however, the claim that disease severity is highly correlated to an increase in IFN-γ is controversial and would indicate an immune escape initiated by EV71. This study, investigating the role of IFN-γ in EV71 infection using a murine model, showed that IFN-γ was elevated. Moreover, IFN-γ receptor-deficient mice showed higher mortality rates and more severe disease progression with slower viral clearance than wild-type mice. In vitro results showed that IFN-γ pretreatment reduced EV71 yield, whereas EV71 infection caused IFN-γ resistance with attenuated IFN-γ signaling in IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) gene transactivation. To study the immunoediting ability of EV71 proteins in IFN-γ signaling, 11 viral proteins were stably expressed in cells without cytotoxicity; however, viral proteins 2A and 3D blocked IFN-γ-induced IRF1 transactivation following a loss of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) nuclear translocation. Viral 3D attenuated IFN-γ signaling accompanied by a STAT1 decrease without interfering with IFN-γ receptor expression. Restoration of STAT1 or blocking 3D activity was able to rescue IFN-γ signaling. Interestingly, viral 2A attenuated IFN-γ signaling using another mechanism by reducing the serine phosphorylation of STAT1 following the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase without affecting STAT1 expression. These results demonstrate the anti-EV71 ability of IFN-γ and the immunoediting ability by EV71 2A and 3D, which attenuate IFN-γ signaling through different mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7028-7037
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume89
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

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