BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing worldwide and is highly associated with the incidence of cancers. In order to prevent diabetes, early diagnosis of prediabetes is important. However, biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis are still scarce. The hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip) is important in embryogenesis and is known to be a biomarker of several cancers. However, Hhip levels in subjects with diabetes are still unknown.
METHODS: In total, 314 participants were enrolled and divided into normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 75), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 66), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 86), and newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD; n = 87) groups. Plasma Hhip levels were determined by an ELISA. The association between the Hhip and the presence of diabetes was examined by a multivariate linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-load 2-h glucose, hemoglobin A1c (A1C), C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels among the groups. Concentrations of the Hhip were 2.45 ± 2.12, 4.40 ± 3.22, 4.44 ± 3.64, and 6.31 ± 5.35 ng/mL in subjects in the NGT, IFG, IGT, and NDD groups, respectively. In addition, we found that A1C and FPG were independently associated with Hhip concentrations. Using NGT as a reference group, IFG, IGT, and NDD were all independently associated with Hhip concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS: Hhip was positively associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.