Effects of milling time, zirconia addition, and storage environment on the radiopacity performance of mechanically milled Bi2O3/ZrO2 composite powders

May Show Chen, Hsiu Na Lin, Yu Chun Cheng, Alex Fang, Chin Yi Chen, Pee Yew Lee, Chung Kwei Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) typically consists of Portland cement (75 wt.%), bismuth oxide (20 wt.%), and gypsum (5 wt.%) and is commonly used as endodontic cement. Bismuth oxide serving as the radiopacifying material reveals the canal filling effect after clinical treatment. In the present study, bismuth/zirconium oxide composite powder was prepared by high energy ball milling of (Bi2O3)100-x (ZrO2)x (x = 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%) powder mixture and used as the radiopacifiers within MTA. The crystalline phases of the as-milled powders were examined by the X-ray diffraction technique. The radiopacities of MTA-like cements prepared by using as-milled composite powders (at various milling stages or different amount of zirconia addition) were examined. In addition, the stability of the as-milled powders stored in an ambient environment, an electronic dry box, or a glove box was investigated. The experimental results show that the as-milled powder exhibited the starting powder phases of Bi2O3 and ZrO2 and the newly formed δ-Bi7.38Zr0.62O2.31 phase. The longer the milling time or the larger the amount of the zirconia addition, the higher the percentage of the δ-Bi7.38Zr0.62O2.31 phase in the composite powder. All the MTA-like cements prepared by the as-milled powder exhibited a radiopacity higher than 4 mmAl that is better than the 3 mmAl ISO standard requirement. The 30 min as-milled (Bi2O3)95(ZrO2)5 composite powder exhibited a radiopacity of 5.82 ± 0.33 mmAl and degraded significantly in the ambient environment. However, storing under an oxygen- and humidity-controlled glove box can prolong a high radiopacity performance. The radiopacity was 5.76 ± 0.08 mmAl after 28 days in a glove box that was statistically the same as the original composite powder.

Original languageEnglish
Article number563
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 24 2020


  • Bismuth oxide
  • Mechanical milling
  • Mineral trioxide aggregates
  • Radiopacity
  • Zirconia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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