Effects of glycolic acid on the induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 activation in human leukemia cell line (HL-60)

Jen Hung Yang, Chi Chung Chou, Ya Wen Cheng, Lee Yan Sheen, Ming Chi Chou, Hsin Su Yu, Yau Huei Wei, Jing Gung Chung

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Apoptosis is a particular process that leads to the programmed cell death, and it has been a potentially therapeutic target of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the possible apoptotic effects of glycolic acid on human leukemia cell line (HL-60) in vitro. The morphological changes, cell viability, apoptosis induction, and caspase-3 activity were measured by phase microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Morphological changes including shrinkage of cells were clearly demonstrated in HL-60 cells treated with increasing concentrations of glycolic acid. Cell viability was significantly affected by glycolic acid treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In comparison to the control group, glycolic acid treatment had a profound effect in the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometric assays. In the cell cycle analysis, glycolic acid caused the increased percentage of cells in G2/M phase and the decreased expression of the cyclin A and cyclin B1, suggesting the induction of G2/M arrest of cell cycle by glycolic acid. Moreover, glycolic acid treatment promoted caspase-9 and -3 activity in a dose-dependent manner, but caspse-8 activity was not affected during the same process. Glycolic acid co-administrated with broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, caspase-3 activity was blunted and apoptosis was also markedly blocked in HL-60 cells. In conclusion, glycolic acid-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells may be through the activation of caspase-3. Future studies focusing on cell signaling and biological significance of glycolic acid-induced apoptosis would lead to exploring the mechanisms of chemotherapeutic potency of glycolic acid in human cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1777-1784
Number of pages8
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume42
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Flow cytometry
  • Glycolic acid
  • Human leukemia HL-60 cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

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    Yang, J. H., Chou, C. C., Cheng, Y. W., Sheen, L. Y., Chou, M. C., Yu, H. S., Wei, Y. H., & Chung, J. G. (2004). Effects of glycolic acid on the induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 activation in human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(11), 1777-1784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.07.004