Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare and investigate the efficacy of using the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) to improve postoperative urination and surgery-related complications. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study comparing patients who received or did not receive 5α-reductase inhibitors prior to HoLEP. Of a total of 270 patients, 40 received the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride. We compared the factors including age, postoperative maximal flow rate (MFR; mL/s), postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (ng/mL), preoperative MFR (mL/s), preoperative PSA (ng/mL), prostate cancer (%), operative time (min), preoperative residual urine (mL), postoperative residual urine (mL), urinary incontinence (day 1; %), urinary incontinence (1 month; %), urinary incontinence (3 months; %), urethral catheter indwelling period (days), morcellation time (min), enucleation time (min), intraoperative complications (%), postoperative complications (%), prostate volume (mL), enucleated weight (g), and hospitalization period (days). Results: Postoperative PSA (p = 0.0071), morcellation time (p = 0.0444), postoperative complications (p = 0.0350) and prostate volume (p = 0.0069), but not enucleated prostate weight (p = 0.8809), were significantly lower in the dutasteride group. Importantly, enucleation efficiency and morcellation efficiency did not show any significant difference between the dutasteride and the non-dutasteride groups. Conclusions: Use of a preoperative 5α-reductase inhibitor significantly correlated with surgery-related factors, with less morcellation time, fewer postoperative complications, and lower postoperative PSA. Surgeons performing HoLEP may wish to take these findings into account.
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