We retrospectively examined the impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) during the first complete remission (CR1) in 81 patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Eligible patients were divided into three subgroups: HSCT recipients with allogeneic sibling or matched unrelated donors (MUD) (allogeneic HSCT, n=47), recipients of autologous HSCT (n=12), and patients receiving chemotherapy alone (n=22). We examined factors associated with overall survival (OS) in these patients, focusing particularly on the effect of allogeneic HSCT. Comparing to those receiving chemotherapy alone, patients in the allogeneic HSCT group had significantly better OS, which was independent of the presence of comorbidities. Furthermore, patients who received allogeneic sibling HSCT had the best OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients who received MUD HSCT also had significant advantage in DFS but not in OS, when compared with patients in the chemotherapy group. The study results suggest that patients with CN-AML in CR1 who are eligible for HSCT may have a survival benefit from HSCT, especially the allogeneic HSCT. We suggest that future studies employ molecular classification of AML to better define the benefits of HSCT during CR1 in patients with CN-AML.
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