Background. Hepatolithiasis with intrahepatic biliary strictures, more common in Southeast Asia than elsewhere, remains a difficult problem to manage. Hepatic resection has recently been advocated as one of the treatment modalities for hepatolithiasis; however, this procedure is not without risk. This study was designed to achieve complete clearance of the stones, eliminate bile stasis, and avoid the potential risks of hepatic resection in the patient with hepatolithiasis and intrahepatic biliary stricute. Methods. In this prospective clinical trial 13 patients with retained left hepatolithiasis and intrahepatic biliary strictures were included. All the patients met the following criteria: (1) initial surgical procedure for hepatolithiasis, (2) normal gross findings of the left liver, and (3) no obvious clinical evidence of an associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. After the operation they underwent matured T-tube tract ductal dilatation with percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy tube stenting. Choledochoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy was used in five patients after dilatation when impacted or large stones were encountered. Results. Complete clearance of the stones was achieved in these 13 patients. One patient had fevers develop after ductal dilatation, and another patient had mild hemobilia after electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Both recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment. These successfully treated patients remain well, with a mean follow-up period of 20 months. Conclusions. Postoperative matured T-tube tract ductal dilatation and stenting, combined with endoscopic electrohydraulic lithorripsy when indicated, is an effective and safe alternative to hepatic resection for selected left hepatolithiasis with intrahepatic biliary stricture.
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