Dry eye disease (DED) has become common on a global scale in recent years. There is a wide prevalence of DED in different countries based on various ethnicities and environment. DED is a multifactorial ocular disorder. In addition to advanced age and gender, such factors as living at high altitude, smoking, pterygium, prolonged use of consumer electronics or overingesting of caffeine or multivitamins are considered to be the major risk factors of DED. We report the DED epidemiology in Taiwan firstly in this article. According to the pathophysiological factors and changes inthe composition of the tear film in DED, it can be categorized into several subtypes, including lipid anomaly dry eye, aqueous tear deficiency, allergic and toxic dry eye among others. Each subtype has its own cause and disease management; therefore, it is important for ophthalmologists to identify the type through literature review and investigation. The management of DED, relies not only on traditional medications such as artificial tears, gels and ointments, but also newer treatment options such as acupuncture, SYL1001, and nanomedicine therapy. We also conducted a comprehensive literature review including common subtypes and treatment of DED. Clearly, more clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of the various treatments and common subtypes of DED.