Dose-response relationships of oral habits associated with the risk of oral pre-malignant lesions among men who chew betel quid

Amy Ming Fang Yen, Shao Ching Chen, Tony Hsiu Hsi Chen

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48 Citations (Scopus)


Betel quid, cigarettes and alcohol are well-recognized risk factors for oral cancer. However, the combined effect of the frequency and duration of these oral habits on the risk for developing oral pre-malignancies among betel quid users has not been fully addressed. In this study, an oral screening programme for men chewing betel quid was carried out by well-trained dentists for early detection of oral pre-malignancy lesions. Using generalized logit model and proportional odds model, we found that, compared with the occasional user, the adjusted odds ratios of developing leukoplakia for men chewing one to 10 pieces of betel quid, 11-20 pieces, and more than 20 pieces per day were estimated as 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-2.81), 2.99 (95% CI 2.06-4.27), and 5.37 (95% CI 3.76-7.47), respectively. The corresponding figures for erythroleukoplakia were 3.69 (95% CI 1.55-8.79), 13.78 (95% CI 5.76-32.98), and 36.64 (95% CI 15.94-84.16), respectively. Similar results were found while the duration was considered. The dose-response relationships were not as noteworthy for cigarette and alcohol drinking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)634-638
Number of pages5
JournalOral Oncology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes



  • Betel quid
  • Dose-response effect
  • Erythroleukoplakia
  • Leukoplakia
  • Oral submucous fibrosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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