Nasal microbial communities may have crucial implications for human health, including for residents of healthcare institutes (HCIs). Factors that determine the diversity of nasal microbiota in HCIs remain unclear. Herein, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the relationship between nasal and surface microbiota in three HCIs. Participants were classified into a hospitalised or nonhospitalised group based on their most recent date of hospitalisation. A total of 88 nasal samples and 83 surface samples were analysed. Dysgonomonas and Corynebacterium were the most abundant taxa in the surface and nasal samples, respectively. Significant differences were discovered in microbiota diversity among HCIs when comparing the surface and nasal samples. Fifteen taxa were identified as present in all the surface and nasal samples. SourceTracker analysis revealed that the ventilation conditions of environment might be associated with the proportion of shared microbial communities between nasal and surface. Additionally, as compared with the nonhospitalised group, the hospitalised group had a higher proportion of surface microbiota in their nasal samples, which might lead to a higher risk of human-related microorganisms or pathogens colonising the nasal cavity. The data suggest that nasal bacterial diversity could be influenced by both health status and living environment. Our results therefore highlight the importance of the indoor environment for HCI residents.
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