Direct renin inhibitor prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats

Chu Lin Chou, Cheng Yong Pang, Tony Jf Lee, Te Chao Fang

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Abstract

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers can improve insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction in insulin-resistant rats; however, there are few reports on the effects of direct renin inhibitors on these conditions. We investigated the effects of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) and studied for 8 weeks: Group Con: standard chow diet; group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose); Group FruA: high-fructose diet with concurrent aliskiren treatment (100 mg kg-1 per day); and Group FruB: high-fructose diet with subsequent aliskiren treatment 4 weeks later. Blood was collected for biochemical assays, and isolated rings of the thoracic aorta were obtained for analysis of vascular reactivity, vascular structure and lipid peroxide. Rats fed with high-fructose diets developed significant systolic hypertension, decreased plasma nitrite (NO 2; nitric oxide metabolite) levels and increased plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and aortic lipid peroxide levels, and aortic wall thickness compared with control rats. Aliskiren treatment, either concurrent or subsequent, elevated plasma NO 2 levels and reduced systolic hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, aortic lipid peroxide levels and aortic wall hypertrophy in FHR. The peak endothelium-dependent aortic relaxations were significantly higher in rats that received aliskiren treatment than in those that did not. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aliskiren prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and oxidative vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-128
Number of pages6
JournalHypertension Research
Volume36
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

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Fructose
Renin
Insulin Resistance
Lipid Peroxides
Diet
Blood Vessels
Insulin
Hypertension
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers
Inbred WKY Rats
Dyslipidemias
Nitrites
Vascular Remodeling
Thoracic Aorta
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Hypertrophy
Endothelium
aliskiren
Nitric Oxide
Triglycerides

Keywords

  • aliskiren
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • insulin resistance
  • vascular remodeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Direct renin inhibitor prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats",
abstract = "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers can improve insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction in insulin-resistant rats; however, there are few reports on the effects of direct renin inhibitors on these conditions. We investigated the effects of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) and studied for 8 weeks: Group Con: standard chow diet; group Fru: high-fructose diet (60{\%} fructose); Group FruA: high-fructose diet with concurrent aliskiren treatment (100 mg kg-1 per day); and Group FruB: high-fructose diet with subsequent aliskiren treatment 4 weeks later. Blood was collected for biochemical assays, and isolated rings of the thoracic aorta were obtained for analysis of vascular reactivity, vascular structure and lipid peroxide. Rats fed with high-fructose diets developed significant systolic hypertension, decreased plasma nitrite (NO 2; nitric oxide metabolite) levels and increased plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and aortic lipid peroxide levels, and aortic wall thickness compared with control rats. Aliskiren treatment, either concurrent or subsequent, elevated plasma NO 2 levels and reduced systolic hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, aortic lipid peroxide levels and aortic wall hypertrophy in FHR. The peak endothelium-dependent aortic relaxations were significantly higher in rats that received aliskiren treatment than in those that did not. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aliskiren prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and oxidative vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.",
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AB - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers can improve insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction in insulin-resistant rats; however, there are few reports on the effects of direct renin inhibitors on these conditions. We investigated the effects of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) and studied for 8 weeks: Group Con: standard chow diet; group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose); Group FruA: high-fructose diet with concurrent aliskiren treatment (100 mg kg-1 per day); and Group FruB: high-fructose diet with subsequent aliskiren treatment 4 weeks later. Blood was collected for biochemical assays, and isolated rings of the thoracic aorta were obtained for analysis of vascular reactivity, vascular structure and lipid peroxide. Rats fed with high-fructose diets developed significant systolic hypertension, decreased plasma nitrite (NO 2; nitric oxide metabolite) levels and increased plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and aortic lipid peroxide levels, and aortic wall thickness compared with control rats. Aliskiren treatment, either concurrent or subsequent, elevated plasma NO 2 levels and reduced systolic hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, aortic lipid peroxide levels and aortic wall hypertrophy in FHR. The peak endothelium-dependent aortic relaxations were significantly higher in rats that received aliskiren treatment than in those that did not. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aliskiren prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and oxidative vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

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