Background: The main etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were often hepatitis B virus (HBV) or C and alcohol, rarely autoimmune and biliary diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an emerging role that could lead to chronic liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and eventually HCC in recent years. The aim of our study is to investigate and compare the clinical features of HCC in patients with NAFLD and HBV, including age, gender, cirrhosis, liver function tests, largest tumor size, and cancer stage at the time of diagnosis. The survival outcome was compared between the two groups and the significant predictors of mortality were also analyzed in all patients with HCC. Methods: Most patients with HCC were recruited from the database of Cancer Registries in Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, from 2011 to 2017; and the other patients consecutively from the HCC multidisciplinary conference between January 2018 and December 2019. NAFLD was defined as nonviral hepatitis B (negative HBsAg and either positive anti-HBs or negative anti-HBc), nonviral hepatitis C (negative antihepatitis C virus [HCV]), nonalcoholic (alcohol consumption of <30 g/d for men and <20 g/d for women) liver disease, or present or past histological or ultrasonographic evidence of fatty liver. Totally, 23 NAFLD-related and 156 HBV-related HCC patients were enrolled in our study for further analysis. Results: NAFLD-related HCC patients were significantly older (median age: 70.0 [61.0-79.0] years vs. 63.0 [56.0-72.0] years, p = 0.012) and heavier (median body mass index [BMI]: 26.6 [24.2-30] kg/m2 vs. 24.8 [22.0-27.1] kg/m2, p = 0.044) than those with HBV-related HCC. They were also more susceptible to diabetes mellitus (DM), and 60.9% (14 of 23) of them had this comorbidity compared with 29.5% (46 of 156) of those with HBV-related HCC (p = 0.003). Only 34.8% (8 of 23) and 71.2% (111 of 156) of patients with NAFLD- and HBV-related HCC were cirrhotic, respectively (p = 0.001). However, gender, tobacco use, international normalized ratio, albumin, creatinine, and cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Tumor characteristics such as the Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage, largest tumor size, tumor number, extrahepatic metastasis, and treatment modalities had no significant difference between such groups. According to the Kaplan-Meier method analysis, the overall survival was not significantly different between these two patient groups (log-rank test, p = 0.101). To evaluate which patient group would lead to poor prognosis, we analyzed the survival of all patients through multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression after controlling other factors that may influence the hazard ratio. The analysis revealed that NAFLD and HBV infection as the cause of HCC are not risk factors of poor prognosis. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed NAFLD-related HCC patients were older, heavier, and more had DM than HBVrelated. In addition, more NAFLD-related HCC patients were noncirrhotic than HBV-related. The survival rate was similar between NAFLD and HBV-related HCC patients.
- Fatty liver
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
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