Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage

Yun Wang, Chen Fu Chang, Jenny Chou, Hui Ling Chen, Xiaolin Deng, Brandon K. Harvey, Jean Lud Cadet, Paula C. Bickford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

137 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Free radicals are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ischemia and aging. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with diets enriched with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina have been shown to reduce neurodegenerative changes in aged animals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these diets have neuroprotective effects in focal ischemic brain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with equal amounts of diets (blueberry, spinach, and spirulina) or with control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, all animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The right middle cerebral artery was ligated with a 10-O suture for 60 min. The ligature was later removed to allow reperfusional injury. Animals were sacrificed and brains were removed for caspase-3 enzymatic assays and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 8 and 48 h after the onset of reperfusion. A subgroup of animals was used for locomotor behavior and biochemical assays. We found that animals which received blueberry, spinach, or spirulina enriched diets had a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex and an increase in post-stroke locomotor activity. There was no difference in blood biochemistry, blood CO 2, and electrolyte levels among all groups, suggesting that the protection was not indirectly mediated through the changes in physiological functions. Animals treated with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina had significantly lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere. In conclusion, our data suggest that chronic treatment with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and cerebral infarction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-84
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental Neurology
Volume193
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Blueberry Plants
Spirulina
Spinacia oleracea
Dietary Supplements
Diet
Brain
Caspase 3
Reperfusion
Ischemia
Chloral Hydrate
Cerebral Infarction
Middle Cerebral Artery
Enzyme Assays
Neuroprotective Agents
Carbon Monoxide
Locomotion
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Biochemistry
Cerebral Cortex
Infarction

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Apoptosis
  • Diet
  • Ischemia
  • Neuroprotection
  • Nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Wang, Y., Chang, C. F., Chou, J., Chen, H. L., Deng, X., Harvey, B. K., ... Bickford, P. C. (2005). Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage. Experimental Neurology, 193(1), 75-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014

Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage. / Wang, Yun; Chang, Chen Fu; Chou, Jenny; Chen, Hui Ling; Deng, Xiaolin; Harvey, Brandon K.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Bickford, Paula C.

In: Experimental Neurology, Vol. 193, No. 1, 05.2005, p. 75-84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, Y, Chang, CF, Chou, J, Chen, HL, Deng, X, Harvey, BK, Cadet, JL & Bickford, PC 2005, 'Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage', Experimental Neurology, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 75-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014
Wang, Yun ; Chang, Chen Fu ; Chou, Jenny ; Chen, Hui Ling ; Deng, Xiaolin ; Harvey, Brandon K. ; Cadet, Jean Lud ; Bickford, Paula C. / Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage. In: Experimental Neurology. 2005 ; Vol. 193, No. 1. pp. 75-84.
@article{022fed60bc0f4e89a4bccabe69378ea7,
title = "Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage",
abstract = "Free radicals are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ischemia and aging. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with diets enriched with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina have been shown to reduce neurodegenerative changes in aged animals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these diets have neuroprotective effects in focal ischemic brain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with equal amounts of diets (blueberry, spinach, and spirulina) or with control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, all animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The right middle cerebral artery was ligated with a 10-O suture for 60 min. The ligature was later removed to allow reperfusional injury. Animals were sacrificed and brains were removed for caspase-3 enzymatic assays and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 8 and 48 h after the onset of reperfusion. A subgroup of animals was used for locomotor behavior and biochemical assays. We found that animals which received blueberry, spinach, or spirulina enriched diets had a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex and an increase in post-stroke locomotor activity. There was no difference in blood biochemistry, blood CO 2, and electrolyte levels among all groups, suggesting that the protection was not indirectly mediated through the changes in physiological functions. Animals treated with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina had significantly lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere. In conclusion, our data suggest that chronic treatment with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and cerebral infarction.",
keywords = "Antioxidant, Apoptosis, Diet, Ischemia, Neuroprotection, Nutrition",
author = "Yun Wang and Chang, {Chen Fu} and Jenny Chou and Chen, {Hui Ling} and Xiaolin Deng and Harvey, {Brandon K.} and Cadet, {Jean Lud} and Bickford, {Paula C.}",
year = "2005",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014",
language = "English",
volume = "193",
pages = "75--84",
journal = "Experimental Neurology",
issn = "0014-4886",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage

AU - Wang, Yun

AU - Chang, Chen Fu

AU - Chou, Jenny

AU - Chen, Hui Ling

AU - Deng, Xiaolin

AU - Harvey, Brandon K.

AU - Cadet, Jean Lud

AU - Bickford, Paula C.

PY - 2005/5

Y1 - 2005/5

N2 - Free radicals are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ischemia and aging. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with diets enriched with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina have been shown to reduce neurodegenerative changes in aged animals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these diets have neuroprotective effects in focal ischemic brain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with equal amounts of diets (blueberry, spinach, and spirulina) or with control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, all animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The right middle cerebral artery was ligated with a 10-O suture for 60 min. The ligature was later removed to allow reperfusional injury. Animals were sacrificed and brains were removed for caspase-3 enzymatic assays and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 8 and 48 h after the onset of reperfusion. A subgroup of animals was used for locomotor behavior and biochemical assays. We found that animals which received blueberry, spinach, or spirulina enriched diets had a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex and an increase in post-stroke locomotor activity. There was no difference in blood biochemistry, blood CO 2, and electrolyte levels among all groups, suggesting that the protection was not indirectly mediated through the changes in physiological functions. Animals treated with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina had significantly lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere. In conclusion, our data suggest that chronic treatment with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and cerebral infarction.

AB - Free radicals are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ischemia and aging. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with diets enriched with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina have been shown to reduce neurodegenerative changes in aged animals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these diets have neuroprotective effects in focal ischemic brain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with equal amounts of diets (blueberry, spinach, and spirulina) or with control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, all animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The right middle cerebral artery was ligated with a 10-O suture for 60 min. The ligature was later removed to allow reperfusional injury. Animals were sacrificed and brains were removed for caspase-3 enzymatic assays and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 8 and 48 h after the onset of reperfusion. A subgroup of animals was used for locomotor behavior and biochemical assays. We found that animals which received blueberry, spinach, or spirulina enriched diets had a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex and an increase in post-stroke locomotor activity. There was no difference in blood biochemistry, blood CO 2, and electrolyte levels among all groups, suggesting that the protection was not indirectly mediated through the changes in physiological functions. Animals treated with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina had significantly lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere. In conclusion, our data suggest that chronic treatment with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and cerebral infarction.

KW - Antioxidant

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Diet

KW - Ischemia

KW - Neuroprotection

KW - Nutrition

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=16244373346&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=16244373346&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014

DO - 10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014

M3 - Article

VL - 193

SP - 75

EP - 84

JO - Experimental Neurology

JF - Experimental Neurology

SN - 0014-4886

IS - 1

ER -