Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)

Yu Hsuan Lin, Li Ren Chang, Yang Han Lee, Hsien Wei Tseng, Terry B.J. Kuo, Sue Huei Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

97 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. Methods: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9±2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internalconsistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations = 0.74-0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78), but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere98312
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 4 2014
Externally publishedYes

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Smartphones
vibration
Equipment and Supplies
Vibration
Reproducibility of Results
questionnaires
Factor analysis
Statistical Factor Analysis
testing
Compulsive Behavior
Smartphone
screening
Internet
Screening
factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Lin, Y. H., Chang, L. R., Lee, Y. H., Tseng, H. W., Kuo, T. B. J., & Chen, S. H. (2014). Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). PLoS One, 9(6), [e98312]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098312

Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). / Lin, Yu Hsuan; Chang, Li Ren; Lee, Yang Han; Tseng, Hsien Wei; Kuo, Terry B.J.; Chen, Sue Huei.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 6, e98312, 04.06.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lin, Yu Hsuan ; Chang, Li Ren ; Lee, Yang Han ; Tseng, Hsien Wei ; Kuo, Terry B.J. ; Chen, Sue Huei. / Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 6.
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