6 Citations (Scopus)


Dementia is a common nonmotor condition among people with moderate or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Undoubtedly, profound motor symptoms cause remarkable impairment in daily activities; however, dementia-related disabilities have not been thoroughly investigated, especially not with consideration of differences according to sex. The present study used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) to compare the functional disability between men and women with PD (PwP) with and without dementia. This study employed a registry of disability evaluation and functional assessment using the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability between July 2012 and October 2018. To investigate dementia-related disability in PwP, 1:1 matching by age and Hoehn-Yahr stage was conducted, which resulted in the inclusion of 1605 study participants in each group. The present study demonstrated that among the six major domains of WHODAS 2.0, the section of "Getting alone with others" was significantly worse in both genders of PwP with dementia; however, a greater disability in fulfilling activities of daily living was only noted in male PwP with dementia but not in their female counterparts. Neither the inability to provide self-care nor participation were significantly different between the sexes. Our findings suggested that deteriorating social relationships were a dementia-related disability in all PwP at the moderate and advanced disease stages. Regarding the performance of activities of daily living, deterioration was related to dementia only in male PwP. Such disabilities could indicate cognitive impairment in people with moderate or advanced PD and could be used as an indicator for the early detection of dementia in PwP by healthcare professionals through the easier functional assessment of the WHODAS 2.0.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2230
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2019


  • Disability and Health (ICF)
  • International Classification of Functioning
  • Parkinson’s disease (PD)
  • Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD)
  • World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0)
  • Disability Evaluation
  • World Health Organization
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Disabled Persons/psychology
  • Male
  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Parkinson Disease/psychology
  • Young Adult
  • Adolescent
  • Sex Factors
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Self Care
  • Dementia/psychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Dementia-Related Functional Disability in Moderate to Advanced Parkinson's Disease: Assessment Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this