Decrease in interleukin-21 in children suffering with severe atopic dermatitis

Sheng-Chieh Lin, Ya-Hui Chuang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Bor-Luen Chiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a kind of eczema with an inflammatory, relapsing, non-contagious, and pruritic skin disorder. It is associated with the local infiltration of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. IL-21 is a member of IL-2 family cytokine mainly expressed by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Until now, there is no clinical research in the expression of IL-21 in patients with AD. Methods: We analyzed serum levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE), allergen-specific IgE, and cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-21 in AD cases and controls. In addition, cytokine levels in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 Abs, phytohemagglutin (PHA), or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were measured. We also assessed clinical skin severity by Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Results: Our results showed that serum total IgE in the case group was significantly higher than that of control group (365.449±52.945 and 39.243±7.605IU/ml, respectively). Logistic regression analysis system reveals serum levels of IL-21 and IFN-γ are significantly correlated. However, IL-21 and IL-4, IL-21 and IL-5, as well as IL-21 and IL-17 showed no correlation. Conclusion: A significantly decreased level of IL-21 was observed in children suffering with severe AD compared with controls, suggesting that IL-21 may play a role in AD. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)869-875
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Allergy and Immunology
Volume22
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Atopic Dermatitis
Interleukin-5
Interleukin-4
Immunoglobulin E
Interleukin-17
Cytokines
Serum
interleukin-21
Pokeweed Mitogens
Th2 Cells
Skin
Eczema
Nuclear Family
Allergens
Interleukin-2
Blood Cells
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
T-Lymphocytes
Control Groups

Keywords

  • Allergy
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • IgE isotype switch
  • Interleukin-21
  • CD28 antigen
  • CD3 antigen
  • CD4 antigen
  • gamma interferon
  • immunoglobulin E
  • interleukin 17
  • interleukin 21
  • interleukin 4
  • interleukin 5
  • phytohemagglutinin
  • pokeweed mitogen
  • article
  • atopic dermatitis
  • CD4+ T lymphocyte
  • child
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • cytokine release
  • disease severity
  • female
  • human
  • immunoglobulin blood level
  • male
  • peripheral blood mononuclear cell
  • priority journal
  • Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index
  • scoring system
  • supernatant
  • T lymphocyte activation
  • Th2 cell
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, CD28
  • Antigens, CD3
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dermatitis, Atopic
  • Disease Progression
  • Down-Regulation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Interleukins
  • Male
  • Phytohemagglutinins
  • Pokeweed Mitogens
  • Th2 Cells

Cite this

Decrease in interleukin-21 in children suffering with severe atopic dermatitis. / Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen.

In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2011, p. 869-875.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lin, Sheng-Chieh ; Chuang, Ya-Hui ; Yang, Yao-Hsu ; Chiang, Bor-Luen. / Decrease in interleukin-21 in children suffering with severe atopic dermatitis. In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2011 ; Vol. 22, No. 8. pp. 869-875.
@article{9acb937aa45b41b8a1f2305306f90845,
title = "Decrease in interleukin-21 in children suffering with severe atopic dermatitis",
abstract = "Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a kind of eczema with an inflammatory, relapsing, non-contagious, and pruritic skin disorder. It is associated with the local infiltration of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. IL-21 is a member of IL-2 family cytokine mainly expressed by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Until now, there is no clinical research in the expression of IL-21 in patients with AD. Methods: We analyzed serum levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE), allergen-specific IgE, and cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-21 in AD cases and controls. In addition, cytokine levels in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 Abs, phytohemagglutin (PHA), or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were measured. We also assessed clinical skin severity by Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Results: Our results showed that serum total IgE in the case group was significantly higher than that of control group (365.449±52.945 and 39.243±7.605IU/ml, respectively). Logistic regression analysis system reveals serum levels of IL-21 and IFN-γ are significantly correlated. However, IL-21 and IL-4, IL-21 and IL-5, as well as IL-21 and IL-17 showed no correlation. Conclusion: A significantly decreased level of IL-21 was observed in children suffering with severe AD compared with controls, suggesting that IL-21 may play a role in AD. {\circledC} 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.",
keywords = "Allergy, Atopic dermatitis, IgE isotype switch, Interleukin-21, CD28 antigen, CD3 antigen, CD4 antigen, gamma interferon, immunoglobulin E, interleukin 17, interleukin 21, interleukin 4, interleukin 5, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, article, atopic dermatitis, CD4+ T lymphocyte, child, clinical article, controlled study, cytokine release, disease severity, female, human, immunoglobulin blood level, male, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, priority journal, Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index, scoring system, supernatant, T lymphocyte activation, Th2 cell, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antigens, CD28, Antigens, CD3, Cells, Cultured, Child, Child, Preschool, Dermatitis, Atopic, Disease Progression, Down-Regulation, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin E, Interferon-gamma, Interleukins, Male, Phytohemagglutinins, Pokeweed Mitogens, Th2 Cells",
author = "Sheng-Chieh Lin and Ya-Hui Chuang and Yao-Hsu Yang and Bor-Luen Chiang",
note = "被引用次數:8 Export Date: 7 April 2016 CODEN: PALUE 通訊地址: Chiang, B.-L.; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No.7.Chung San South Road, Taipei, Taiwan; 電子郵件: gicmbor@ntu.edu.tw 化學物質/CAS: gamma interferon, 82115-62-6; immunoglobulin E, 37341-29-0; interleukin 21, 251100-02-4, 510787-82-3, 542817-56-1; phytohemagglutinin, 9008-97-3; pokeweed mitogen, 63231-57-2; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antigens, CD28; Antigens, CD3; Immunoglobulin E, 37341-29-0; Interferon-gamma, 82115-62-6; Interleukins; Phytohemagglutinins; Pokeweed Mitogens; interleukin-21 參考文獻: Mosmann, T.R., Coffman, R.L., TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties (1998) Annu Rev Immunol, 7, pp. 145-173; Kabesch, M., Halonen, M., Holberg, C.J., A cluster of seven tightly linked polymorphisms in the IL-13 gene is associated with total serum IgE levels in three populations of white children (2000) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 105, pp. 506-513; Kabesch, M., Schedel, M., Carr, D., IL-4/IL-13 pathway genetics strongly influence serum IgE levels and childhood asthma (2006) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 117, pp. 269-274; Lin, S.C., Shyur, S.D., Lee, W.I., Ma, Y.C., Huang, L.H., X-linked hyper IgM syndrome: molecular genetic study of three generations of a Chinese family (2006) Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 140, pp. 1-8; Lipozencic, J., Wolf, R., Atopic dermatitis: an update and review of the literature (2007) Dermatol Clin, 25, pp. 605-612; Morar, N., Willis-Owen, S.A., Moffatt, M.F., Cookson, W.O., The genetics of atopic dermatitis (2006) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 118, pp. 24-34; Parrish-Novak, J., Dillon, S.R., Nelson, A., Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte (2000) Nature, 408, pp. 57-63; Onoda, T., Rahman, M., Nara, H., Human CD4 + central and effector memory T cells produce IL-21: effect on cytokine-driven proliferation of CD4 + T cell subsets (2007) Int Immunol, 19, pp. 1191-1199; Ouyang, W., Kolls, J.K., Zheng, Y., The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation (2008) Immunity, 28, pp. 454-467; Brandt, K., Singh, P.B., Bulfone-Paus, S., R{\"u}ckert, R., Interleukin 21: a new modulator of immunity, infection and cancer (2007) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 18, pp. 223-232; Suto, A., Nakajima, H., Hirose, K., Interleukin 21 prevents antigen-induced IgE production by inhibiting germ line C (epsilon) transcription of IL-4-stimulated B cells (2002) Blood, 100, pp. 4565-4573; Harada, M., Magara-Koyanagi, K., Watarai, H., IL-21-induced Bepsilon cell apoptosis mediated by natural killer T cells suppresses IgE responses (2006) J Exp Med, 203, pp. 2929-2937; Hecker, M., Bohnert, A., K{\"o}nig, I.R., Bein, G., Hackstein, H., Novel genetic variation of human interleukin-21 receptor is associated with elevated IgE levels in females (2003) Genes Immun, 3, pp. 228-233; Oranje, A.P., Glazenburg, E.J., Wolkerstorfer, A., de Waard-van der Spek, F.B., Practical issues on interpretation of scoring atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index, objective SCORAD and the three-item severity score (2007) Br J Dermatol, 157, pp. 645-648; Sohn, M.H., Song, J.S., Kim, K.W., Kim, E.S., Kim, K.E., Lee, J.M., Association of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism in children with atopic dermatitis (2007) J Pediatr, 150, pp. 106-108; Mehta, D.S., Wurster, A.L., Gruby, M.J., Biology of IL-21 and the IL-21 receptor (2004) Immunol Rev, 202, pp. 84-95; Ozaki, K., Spolski, R., Feng, C.G., A critical role for IL-21 in regulating immunoglobulin production (2002) Science, 298, pp. 1630-1634; Wood, N., Bourque, K., Donaldson, D.D., IL-21 effects on human IgE production in response to IL-4 or IL-13 (2004) Cell Immunol, 231, pp. 133-145; Strengell, M., Lehtonen, A., Matikainen, S., Julkunen, I., IL-21 enhances SOCS gene expression and inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (2006) J Leukoc Biol, 79, pp. 1279-1285; Strengell, M., Sareneva, T., Foster, D., Julkunen, I., Matikainen, S., IL-21 up-regulates the expression of genes associated with innate immunity and Th1 Response (2002) J Immunol, 169, pp. 3600-3605; P{\`e}ne, J., Guglielmi, L., Gauchat, J.F., IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of human IgE synthesis by IL-21 is associated with a polymorphism in the IL-21R Gene (2006) J Immunol, 177, pp. 5006-5013; Habib, T., Nelson, A., Kaushansky, K., IL-21: a novel IL-2-family lymphokine that modulates B, T, and natural killer cell response (2003) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 112, pp. 1033-1045; Renner, E.D., Rylaarsdam, S., Anover-Sombke, S., Novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations, reduced T(H)17 cell numbers, and variably defective STAT3 phosphorylation in hyper-IgE syndrome (2008) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 122, pp. 181-187; Schmidt-Weber, C.B., Akdis, M., Akdis, C.A., Th17 cells in the big picture of immunology (2007) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120, pp. 247-254; Korn, T., Bettelli, E., Gao, W., IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory Th17 cells (2007) Nature, 448, pp. 484-487; McGeachy, M.J., Cua, D.J., Th17 cell differentiation: the long and winding road (2008) Immunity, 28, pp. 445-453; Jin, H., Oyoshi, M.K., Le, Y., IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice (2009) J Clin Invest, 119, pp. 47-60; Simpson, E.L., Hanifin, J.M., Atopic dermatitis (2005) J Am Acad Dermatol, 53, pp. 115-128; Kishida, T., Hiromura, Y., Shin-Ya, M., IL-21 induces inhibitor of differentiation 2 and leads to complete abrogation of anaphylaxis in mice (2007) J Immunol, 179, pp. 8554-8561; Hiromura, Y., Kishida, T., Nakano, H., IL-21 administration into the nostril alleviates murine allergic rhinitis (2007) J Immunol, 179, pp. 7157-7165",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01209.x",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "869--875",
journal = "Pediatric Allergy and Immunology",
issn = "0905-6157",
publisher = "Blackwell Munksgaard",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Decrease in interleukin-21 in children suffering with severe atopic dermatitis

AU - Lin, Sheng-Chieh

AU - Chuang, Ya-Hui

AU - Yang, Yao-Hsu

AU - Chiang, Bor-Luen

N1 - 被引用次數:8 Export Date: 7 April 2016 CODEN: PALUE 通訊地址: Chiang, B.-L.; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No.7.Chung San South Road, Taipei, Taiwan; 電子郵件: gicmbor@ntu.edu.tw 化學物質/CAS: gamma interferon, 82115-62-6; immunoglobulin E, 37341-29-0; interleukin 21, 251100-02-4, 510787-82-3, 542817-56-1; phytohemagglutinin, 9008-97-3; pokeweed mitogen, 63231-57-2; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antigens, CD28; Antigens, CD3; Immunoglobulin E, 37341-29-0; Interferon-gamma, 82115-62-6; Interleukins; Phytohemagglutinins; Pokeweed Mitogens; interleukin-21 參考文獻: Mosmann, T.R., Coffman, R.L., TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties (1998) Annu Rev Immunol, 7, pp. 145-173; Kabesch, M., Halonen, M., Holberg, C.J., A cluster of seven tightly linked polymorphisms in the IL-13 gene is associated with total serum IgE levels in three populations of white children (2000) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 105, pp. 506-513; Kabesch, M., Schedel, M., Carr, D., IL-4/IL-13 pathway genetics strongly influence serum IgE levels and childhood asthma (2006) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 117, pp. 269-274; Lin, S.C., Shyur, S.D., Lee, W.I., Ma, Y.C., Huang, L.H., X-linked hyper IgM syndrome: molecular genetic study of three generations of a Chinese family (2006) Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 140, pp. 1-8; Lipozencic, J., Wolf, R., Atopic dermatitis: an update and review of the literature (2007) Dermatol Clin, 25, pp. 605-612; Morar, N., Willis-Owen, S.A., Moffatt, M.F., Cookson, W.O., The genetics of atopic dermatitis (2006) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 118, pp. 24-34; Parrish-Novak, J., Dillon, S.R., Nelson, A., Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte (2000) Nature, 408, pp. 57-63; Onoda, T., Rahman, M., Nara, H., Human CD4 + central and effector memory T cells produce IL-21: effect on cytokine-driven proliferation of CD4 + T cell subsets (2007) Int Immunol, 19, pp. 1191-1199; Ouyang, W., Kolls, J.K., Zheng, Y., The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation (2008) Immunity, 28, pp. 454-467; Brandt, K., Singh, P.B., Bulfone-Paus, S., Rückert, R., Interleukin 21: a new modulator of immunity, infection and cancer (2007) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 18, pp. 223-232; Suto, A., Nakajima, H., Hirose, K., Interleukin 21 prevents antigen-induced IgE production by inhibiting germ line C (epsilon) transcription of IL-4-stimulated B cells (2002) Blood, 100, pp. 4565-4573; Harada, M., Magara-Koyanagi, K., Watarai, H., IL-21-induced Bepsilon cell apoptosis mediated by natural killer T cells suppresses IgE responses (2006) J Exp Med, 203, pp. 2929-2937; Hecker, M., Bohnert, A., König, I.R., Bein, G., Hackstein, H., Novel genetic variation of human interleukin-21 receptor is associated with elevated IgE levels in females (2003) Genes Immun, 3, pp. 228-233; Oranje, A.P., Glazenburg, E.J., Wolkerstorfer, A., de Waard-van der Spek, F.B., Practical issues on interpretation of scoring atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index, objective SCORAD and the three-item severity score (2007) Br J Dermatol, 157, pp. 645-648; Sohn, M.H., Song, J.S., Kim, K.W., Kim, E.S., Kim, K.E., Lee, J.M., Association of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism in children with atopic dermatitis (2007) J Pediatr, 150, pp. 106-108; Mehta, D.S., Wurster, A.L., Gruby, M.J., Biology of IL-21 and the IL-21 receptor (2004) Immunol Rev, 202, pp. 84-95; Ozaki, K., Spolski, R., Feng, C.G., A critical role for IL-21 in regulating immunoglobulin production (2002) Science, 298, pp. 1630-1634; Wood, N., Bourque, K., Donaldson, D.D., IL-21 effects on human IgE production in response to IL-4 or IL-13 (2004) Cell Immunol, 231, pp. 133-145; Strengell, M., Lehtonen, A., Matikainen, S., Julkunen, I., IL-21 enhances SOCS gene expression and inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (2006) J Leukoc Biol, 79, pp. 1279-1285; Strengell, M., Sareneva, T., Foster, D., Julkunen, I., Matikainen, S., IL-21 up-regulates the expression of genes associated with innate immunity and Th1 Response (2002) J Immunol, 169, pp. 3600-3605; Pène, J., Guglielmi, L., Gauchat, J.F., IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of human IgE synthesis by IL-21 is associated with a polymorphism in the IL-21R Gene (2006) J Immunol, 177, pp. 5006-5013; Habib, T., Nelson, A., Kaushansky, K., IL-21: a novel IL-2-family lymphokine that modulates B, T, and natural killer cell response (2003) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 112, pp. 1033-1045; Renner, E.D., Rylaarsdam, S., Anover-Sombke, S., Novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations, reduced T(H)17 cell numbers, and variably defective STAT3 phosphorylation in hyper-IgE syndrome (2008) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 122, pp. 181-187; Schmidt-Weber, C.B., Akdis, M., Akdis, C.A., Th17 cells in the big picture of immunology (2007) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120, pp. 247-254; Korn, T., Bettelli, E., Gao, W., IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory Th17 cells (2007) Nature, 448, pp. 484-487; McGeachy, M.J., Cua, D.J., Th17 cell differentiation: the long and winding road (2008) Immunity, 28, pp. 445-453; Jin, H., Oyoshi, M.K., Le, Y., IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice (2009) J Clin Invest, 119, pp. 47-60; Simpson, E.L., Hanifin, J.M., Atopic dermatitis (2005) J Am Acad Dermatol, 53, pp. 115-128; Kishida, T., Hiromura, Y., Shin-Ya, M., IL-21 induces inhibitor of differentiation 2 and leads to complete abrogation of anaphylaxis in mice (2007) J Immunol, 179, pp. 8554-8561; Hiromura, Y., Kishida, T., Nakano, H., IL-21 administration into the nostril alleviates murine allergic rhinitis (2007) J Immunol, 179, pp. 7157-7165

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a kind of eczema with an inflammatory, relapsing, non-contagious, and pruritic skin disorder. It is associated with the local infiltration of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. IL-21 is a member of IL-2 family cytokine mainly expressed by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Until now, there is no clinical research in the expression of IL-21 in patients with AD. Methods: We analyzed serum levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE), allergen-specific IgE, and cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-21 in AD cases and controls. In addition, cytokine levels in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 Abs, phytohemagglutin (PHA), or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were measured. We also assessed clinical skin severity by Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Results: Our results showed that serum total IgE in the case group was significantly higher than that of control group (365.449±52.945 and 39.243±7.605IU/ml, respectively). Logistic regression analysis system reveals serum levels of IL-21 and IFN-γ are significantly correlated. However, IL-21 and IL-4, IL-21 and IL-5, as well as IL-21 and IL-17 showed no correlation. Conclusion: A significantly decreased level of IL-21 was observed in children suffering with severe AD compared with controls, suggesting that IL-21 may play a role in AD. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

AB - Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a kind of eczema with an inflammatory, relapsing, non-contagious, and pruritic skin disorder. It is associated with the local infiltration of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. IL-21 is a member of IL-2 family cytokine mainly expressed by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Until now, there is no clinical research in the expression of IL-21 in patients with AD. Methods: We analyzed serum levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE), allergen-specific IgE, and cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-21 in AD cases and controls. In addition, cytokine levels in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 Abs, phytohemagglutin (PHA), or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were measured. We also assessed clinical skin severity by Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Results: Our results showed that serum total IgE in the case group was significantly higher than that of control group (365.449±52.945 and 39.243±7.605IU/ml, respectively). Logistic regression analysis system reveals serum levels of IL-21 and IFN-γ are significantly correlated. However, IL-21 and IL-4, IL-21 and IL-5, as well as IL-21 and IL-17 showed no correlation. Conclusion: A significantly decreased level of IL-21 was observed in children suffering with severe AD compared with controls, suggesting that IL-21 may play a role in AD. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

KW - Allergy

KW - Atopic dermatitis

KW - IgE isotype switch

KW - Interleukin-21

KW - CD28 antigen

KW - CD3 antigen

KW - CD4 antigen

KW - gamma interferon

KW - immunoglobulin E

KW - interleukin 17

KW - interleukin 21

KW - interleukin 4

KW - interleukin 5

KW - phytohemagglutinin

KW - pokeweed mitogen

KW - article

KW - atopic dermatitis

KW - CD4+ T lymphocyte

KW - child

KW - clinical article

KW - controlled study

KW - cytokine release

KW - disease severity

KW - female

KW - human

KW - immunoglobulin blood level

KW - male

KW - peripheral blood mononuclear cell

KW - priority journal

KW - Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index

KW - scoring system

KW - supernatant

KW - T lymphocyte activation

KW - Th2 cell

KW - Antibodies, Monoclonal

KW - Antigens, CD28

KW - Antigens, CD3

KW - Cells, Cultured

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Dermatitis, Atopic

KW - Disease Progression

KW - Down-Regulation

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Immunoglobulin E

KW - Interferon-gamma

KW - Interleukins

KW - Male

KW - Phytohemagglutinins

KW - Pokeweed Mitogens

KW - Th2 Cells

U2 - 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01209.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01209.x

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 869

EP - 875

JO - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

JF - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

SN - 0905-6157

IS - 8

ER -