Cytotoxicity of ferulic acid on T24 cell line differentiated by different microenvironments

Chiung Chi Peng, Charng Cherng Chyau, Hui Er Wang, Chi Huang Chang, Kuan Chou Chen, Kuang Yu Chou, Robert Y. Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 10 5 cells mmol-1·h-1 and 2.63 × 10 6 cells mmol-1·h-1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72 h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P <0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P <0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P <0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number579859
JournalBioMed Research International
Volume2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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ferulic acid
Cytotoxicity
Bioactivity
Cell culture
Cells
Cell Line
Caspase 9
Biodiversity
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Caspase 3
Catalase
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Down-Regulation
Mass transfer
Health
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cytotoxicity of ferulic acid on T24 cell line differentiated by different microenvironments. / Peng, Chiung Chi; Chyau, Charng Cherng; Wang, Hui Er; Chang, Chi Huang; Chen, Kuan Chou; Chou, Kuang Yu; Peng, Robert Y.

In: BioMed Research International, Vol. 2013, 579859, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peng, Chiung Chi ; Chyau, Charng Cherng ; Wang, Hui Er ; Chang, Chi Huang ; Chen, Kuan Chou ; Chou, Kuang Yu ; Peng, Robert Y. / Cytotoxicity of ferulic acid on T24 cell line differentiated by different microenvironments. In: BioMed Research International. 2013 ; Vol. 2013.
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