Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: Regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

Ye Ming Lee, Wei Fan Chen, Duen Suey Chou, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Ssu Yu Hou, Jie Jen Lee, George Hsiao, Joen Rong Sheu

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26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin) may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results. Simvastatin (20-50 M) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin). Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2(TxA2) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs) phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLC2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion. The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP-eNOS/NO-cyclic GMP pathway, resulting in inhibition of the PLC2-PKC-p38 MAPK-TxA2cascade, and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number45
JournalJournal of Biomedical Science
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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