CpG island shore methylation regulates caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer

X. Rao, J. Evans, H. Chae, J. Pilrose, S. Kim, P. Yan, R. L. Huang, H. C. Lai, H. Lin, Y. Liu, D. Miller, J. K. Rhee, Y. W. Huang, F. Gu, J. W. Gray, Th M. Huang, K. P. Nephew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is an integral membrane, scaffolding protein found in plasma membrane invaginations (caveolae). Cav1 regulates multiple cancer-associated processes. In breast cancer, a tumor suppressive role for Cav1 has been suggested; however, Cav1 is frequently overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, suggesting an oncogenic function in advanced-stage disease. To further delineate Cav1 function in breast cancer progression, we evaluated its expression levels among a panel of cell lines representing a spectrum of breast cancer phenotypes. In basal-like (the most aggressive BC subtype) breast cancer cells, Cav1 was consistently upregulated, and positively correlated with increased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and migration and invasion. To identify mechanisms of Cav1 gene regulation, we compared DNA methylation levels within promoter 'CpG islands' (CGIs) with 'CGI shores', recently described regions that flank CGIs with less CG-density. Integration of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles ('methylomes') with Cav1 expression in 30 breast cancer cell lines showed that differential methylation of CGI shores, but not CGIs, significantly regulated Cav1 expression. In breast cancer cell lines having low Cav1 expression (despite promoter CGI hypomethylation), we found that treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor induced Cav1 expression via CGI shore demethylation. In addition, further methylome assessments revealed that breast cancer aggressiveness associated with Cav1 CGI shore methylation levels, with shore hypermethylation in minimally aggressive, luminal breast cancer cells and shore hypomethylation in highly aggressive, basal-like cells. Cav1 CGI shore methylation was also observed in human breast tumors, and overall survival rates of breast cancer patients lacking estrogen receptor α (ERα) negatively correlated with Cav1 expression. Based on this first study of Cav1 (a potential oncogene) CGI shore methylation, we suggest this phenomenon may represent a new prognostic marker for ERα-negative, basal-like breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4519-4528
Number of pages10
JournalOncogene
Volume32
Issue number38
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 19 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • breast cancer
  • Cav1
  • CpG island shore
  • DNA methylation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research
  • Genetics

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  • Cite this

    Rao, X., Evans, J., Chae, H., Pilrose, J., Kim, S., Yan, P., Huang, R. L., Lai, H. C., Lin, H., Liu, Y., Miller, D., Rhee, J. K., Huang, Y. W., Gu, F., Gray, J. W., Huang, T. M., & Nephew, K. P. (2013). CpG island shore methylation regulates caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer. Oncogene, 32(38), 4519-4528. https://doi.org/10.1038/onc.2012.474