Introduction. A primary ureteral stump tumor after a nephrectomy is rare; urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is even rarer. A thorough review of the literature indicated that only seven cases have previously been reported. In this study, we report the first Taiwanese case of urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy. It is also the first female case in the literature. The relationship between inflammatory genes, medication history and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. Case presentation. A 72-year-old Asian Taiwanese women with chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in 2001 due to renal cell carcinoma. Nine years later, she was diagnosed with ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma. Genetic and medication surveys were performed. Importantly, our patient had taken Chinese herbal drugs for more than 10 years and the inflammatory gene, Cox-2, was highly expressed in this patient. This is the first report to study the relationship between the Cox-2 gene and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Long-term multiple use of Chinese herbal drugs could be one of the important risk factors for developing urothelial cancer. Close functional coupling between Chinese herbal drugs, Cox-2 gene activation and urothelial cancer should be further investigated.
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