Purposes: To explore correlates of nocturia, compare sleep quality and glycemic control for women with and without nocturia, and examine relationships of nocturia with sleep quality and glycemic control in women with diabetes. Design: This study was a cross-sectional, correlational study with data collected from 275 women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify correlates. Chi-squared tests were used to identify candidate variables for the first logistic regression model. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare sleep quality and glycemic control for women with and those without nocturia. Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationships of nocturia with sleep quality and glycemic control. Findings: Of the 275 participants, 124 (45.1%) had experienced nocturia (at least two voids per night). Waist circumference, parity, time since diagnosis of diabetes, sleep quality, and increased daytime urinary frequency were correlated with nocturia after adjusting for age. Compared to women without nocturia, women who had nocturia reported poorer sleep quality. A significant correlation was found between the number of nocturnal episodes and sleep quality. Conclusions: Nocturia and poor sleep are common among women with diabetes. The multifactorial nature of nocturia supports the delivered management and treatments being targeted to underlying etiologies in order to optimize women's symptom management. Interventions aimed at modifiable correlates may include maintaining a normal body weight and regular physical exercise for maintaining a normal waist circumference, and decreasing caffeine consumption, implementing feasible modifications in sleeping environments and maintaining sleep hygiene to improve sleep quality. Clinical Relevance: Healthcare professionals should screen for nocturia and poor sleep and offer appropriate nonpharmacological lifestyle management, behavioral interventions, or pharmacotherapy for women with diabetes.
- sleep quality
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