Malignant-associated pleural fluid (MAPF) represented an unsolved problem in advanced lung cancer. Our previous work characterized increased pleural angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma and the propensity of MAPF on endothelial angiogenesis. This study investigated the combined efficacy of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib) and bevacizumab in opposing MAPF-induced angiogenesis. In lung adenocarcinoma patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE), Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed the benefit of cotreatment with target therapy and bevacizumab. Increased EGFR expression was observed in the pleural microvessels of patients with lung adenocarcinoma both with and without mutations in EGFR. MAPF was obtained from lung adenocarcinoma patients both wild-type and mutant EGFRs. Total and phosphorylated EGFR were upregulated in HUVEC cultured with MAPF. Treatment with gefitinib as an EGFR inhibitor suppressed MAPF-induced endothelial migration and partially attenuated endothelial proliferation in both wild-type and mutant EGFR lung adenocarcinoma. Cotreatment with gefitinib and bevacizumab produced better inhibition of MAPF-induced endothelial angiogenesis than gefitinib alone in the mutant EGFR subgroup. Protein analysis of MAPF-derived exosomes revealed abundant EGFR and p-EGFR components that implied possible transfer to endothelial cells. Concluding Kaplan–Meier analysis and in vitro studies, the results indicated that the addition of bevacizumab on gefitinib treatment could suppress MAPF-induced angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
- Lung cancer
- Malignant associated pleural effusion
- Vascular endothelium
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)