Comparison of necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus

Yao Hung Tsai, Robert Wen Wei Hsu, Kuo Chin Huang, Tsung Jen Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Vibrio vulnificus can cause a rapidly progressive fatal soft-tissue infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections reported worldwide, and, in particular, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as the most common isolate in emergency departments. The purposes of the present study were to compare the specific characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus infections and to compare the clinical outcomes of Vibrio vulnificus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing infections. Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus (sixty patients) or Staphylococcus aureus (fifty-five patients) were retrospectively reviewed over a six-year period. Differences in mortality, patient characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory data, and hospital course were compared between the Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus groups. Results: Nineteen patients (including eleven in the Vibrio vulnificus group and eight in the Staphylococcus aureus group) died, resulting in a mortality rate of 16.5%. We found significant differences between the two groups with regard to hypotension, fever, the interval between contact and admission, the interval between the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis and the first operation, and admission to the intensive care unit. The patients in the Vibrio vulnificus group had significantly lower total white blood-cell counts, higher banded white blood-cell counts, and lower platelet counts as compared with those in the Staphylococcus aureus group. The proportion of patients who were hypotensive (as indicated by a systolic blood pressure of ≤90 mm Hg) was significantly greater in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subgroup than in the methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus subgroup. Patients with hepatic dysfunction were significantly more likely to have Vibrio vulnificus infection, and those with diabetes mellitus were significantly more likely to have Staphylococcus aureus infection. Conclusions: Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus is a surgical emergency. Vibrio vulnificus infection progresses more rapidly and the clinical characteristics are more fulminant than either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-284
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A
Volume93
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Vibrio vulnificus
Necrotizing Fasciitis
Staphylococcus aureus
Sepsis
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Methicillin
Soft Tissue Infections
Infection
Leukocyte Count
Blood Pressure
Hospital Laboratories
Mortality
Platelet Count
Hypotension
Intensive Care Units
Hospital Emergency Service
Diabetes Mellitus
Emergencies
Fever

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Comparison of necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus. / Tsai, Yao Hung; Hsu, Robert Wen Wei; Huang, Kuo Chin; Huang, Tsung Jen.

In: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A, Vol. 93, No. 3, 02.02.2011, p. 274-284.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Comparison of necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus

AU - Tsai, Yao Hung

AU - Hsu, Robert Wen Wei

AU - Huang, Kuo Chin

AU - Huang, Tsung Jen

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N2 - Background: Vibrio vulnificus can cause a rapidly progressive fatal soft-tissue infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections reported worldwide, and, in particular, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as the most common isolate in emergency departments. The purposes of the present study were to compare the specific characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus infections and to compare the clinical outcomes of Vibrio vulnificus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing infections. Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus (sixty patients) or Staphylococcus aureus (fifty-five patients) were retrospectively reviewed over a six-year period. Differences in mortality, patient characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory data, and hospital course were compared between the Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus groups. Results: Nineteen patients (including eleven in the Vibrio vulnificus group and eight in the Staphylococcus aureus group) died, resulting in a mortality rate of 16.5%. We found significant differences between the two groups with regard to hypotension, fever, the interval between contact and admission, the interval between the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis and the first operation, and admission to the intensive care unit. The patients in the Vibrio vulnificus group had significantly lower total white blood-cell counts, higher banded white blood-cell counts, and lower platelet counts as compared with those in the Staphylococcus aureus group. The proportion of patients who were hypotensive (as indicated by a systolic blood pressure of ≤90 mm Hg) was significantly greater in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subgroup than in the methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus subgroup. Patients with hepatic dysfunction were significantly more likely to have Vibrio vulnificus infection, and those with diabetes mellitus were significantly more likely to have Staphylococcus aureus infection. Conclusions: Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus is a surgical emergency. Vibrio vulnificus infection progresses more rapidly and the clinical characteristics are more fulminant than either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

AB - Background: Vibrio vulnificus can cause a rapidly progressive fatal soft-tissue infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections reported worldwide, and, in particular, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as the most common isolate in emergency departments. The purposes of the present study were to compare the specific characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus infections and to compare the clinical outcomes of Vibrio vulnificus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing infections. Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus (sixty patients) or Staphylococcus aureus (fifty-five patients) were retrospectively reviewed over a six-year period. Differences in mortality, patient characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory data, and hospital course were compared between the Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus groups. Results: Nineteen patients (including eleven in the Vibrio vulnificus group and eight in the Staphylococcus aureus group) died, resulting in a mortality rate of 16.5%. We found significant differences between the two groups with regard to hypotension, fever, the interval between contact and admission, the interval between the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis and the first operation, and admission to the intensive care unit. The patients in the Vibrio vulnificus group had significantly lower total white blood-cell counts, higher banded white blood-cell counts, and lower platelet counts as compared with those in the Staphylococcus aureus group. The proportion of patients who were hypotensive (as indicated by a systolic blood pressure of ≤90 mm Hg) was significantly greater in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subgroup than in the methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus subgroup. Patients with hepatic dysfunction were significantly more likely to have Vibrio vulnificus infection, and those with diabetes mellitus were significantly more likely to have Staphylococcus aureus infection. Conclusions: Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus is a surgical emergency. Vibrio vulnificus infection progresses more rapidly and the clinical characteristics are more fulminant than either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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